Principles and Practices of Polymer Mass Spectrometry helps readers acquire the skills necessary for selecting the optimal methods, handling samples, analyzing the data, and interpreting the results of the mass spectrometry of polymers. This guide describes the principles of polymer MS and best practices in polymer characterization. It discusses different approaches, including MALDI, ESI, TOF MS, and FT-MS. It provides a guide to developing appropriate sample preparation protocols for different polymers. Complete with examples of applications and experiments, this is an excellent reference for scientists, researchers, graduate students, and others.
This book reports innovative deep learning and big data analytics technologies for smart manufacturing applications. In this book, theoretical foundations, as well as the state-of-the-art and practical implementations for the relevant technologies, are covered. This book details the relevant applied research conducted by the authors in some important manufacturing applications, including intelligent prognosis on manufacturing processes, sustainable manufacturing and human-robot cooperation. Industrial case studies included in this book illustrate the design details of the algorithms and methodologies for the applications, in a bid to provide useful references to readers. Smart manufacturing aims to take advantage of advanced information and artificial intelligent technologies to enable flexibility in physical manufacturing processes to address increasingly dynamic markets. In recent years, the development of innovative deep learning and big data analytics algorithms is dramatic. Meanwhile, the algorithms and technologies have been widely applied to facilitate various manufacturing applications. It is essential to make a timely update on this subject considering its importance and rapid progress. This book offers a valuable resource for researchers in the smart manufacturing communities, as well as practicing engineers and decision makers in industry and all those interested in smart manufacturing and Industry 4.0.
This monograph is intended for the designers and would-be designers of secure and efficient wireless communication systems under intentional interference. Along with the widespread of wireless devices, especially reconfigurable software defined radios, jamming has become a serious threat to civilian communications. In this book, going beyond traditional communication system design that mainly focuses on accurate information transmission under benign environments, we aim to enhance the physical layer security of communication systems by integrating modern cryptographic techniques into transceiver design, so as to achieve secure high-speed transmission under hostile interference with high reliability and efficiency. We revisit existing jamming patterns, and introduce new jamming patterns. We analyze the weaknesses of existing anti-jamming techniques. We present innovative and feasible anti-jamming techniques, which can strengthen the inherent security of the 3G, 4G and the upcoming 5G systems with minimal and inexpensive changes to the existing CDMA, frequency hopping and OFDM schemes. We also provide benchmarks for system performance evaluation under various jamming scenarios through capacity analysis. This book includes design principles, in-depth theoretical analysis and practical design examples, and will be of interest to academic researchers as well as professionals in industry.
The editors of this book have brought together contributors from many parts of the world. As such, the book offers a truly diverse, international flavour reflecting a broad range of research on babies and toddlers. Examining examples from both Eastern and Western cultures, the book's overarching focus is on relationships, yielding a coherence beneficial to early childhood researchers and educators alike. Employing visual methodologies to help bring the chapters to life, the varied research studies presented concern babies' and toddlers' relationships and cultural contexts. Taken together, they offer a unique opportunity to conceptualise the use of a wholeness approach for studying babies and toddlers - our youngest citizens.
This book introduces readers to the application of orbital data on space objects in the contexts of conjunction assessment and space situation analysis, including theories and methodologies. It addresses the main topics involved in space object conjunction assessment, such as: orbital error analysis of space objects; close approach analysis; the calculation, analysis and application of collision probability; and the comprehensive assessment of collision risk. In addition, selected topics on space situation analysis are also presented, including orbital anomaly and space event analysis, and so on. The book offers a valuable guide for researchers and engineers in the fields of astrodynamics, space telemetry, tracking and command (TT&C), space surveillance, space situational awareness, and space debris, as well as for graduates majoring in flight vehicle design and related fields.
This book reviews the latest advances in the bioelectrochemical degradation of recalcitrant environmental contaminants. The first part introduces readers to the basic principles and methodologies of bioelectrochemical systems, electron-respiring microorganisms, the electron transfer mechanism and functional electrode materials. In turn, the second part addresses the bioelectrochemical remediation/treatment of various environmental pollutants (including highly toxic refractory organics, heavy metals, and nitrates) in wastewater, sediment and wetlands. Reactor configuration optimization, hybrid technology amplification and enhanced removal principles and techniques are also discussed.The book offers a valuable resource for all researchers and professionals working in environmental science and engineering, bioelectrochemistry, environmental microbiology and biotechnology.
This brief introduces the classification and mechanism of density gradient ultracentrifugation (DGUC) method with rich examples showing the versatility of such an efficient separation technique. It also gives a strict mathematical description and a computational optimization model to predict the best separation parameters for a given colloidal system. The concept of "Lab in a tube" is proposed in the last chapter, which allows the size-property relationship investigation, synthetic optimization and reaction/assembly mechanism exploration etc.
This book provides a comprehensive and advanced overview of the basic theory of thermal remote sensing and its application in hydrology, agriculture, and forestry. Specifically, the book highlights the main theory, assumptions, advantages, drawbacks, and perspectives of these methods for the retrieval and validation of surface temperature/emissivity and evapotranspiration from thermal infrared remote sensing. It will be an especially valuable resource for students, researchers, experts, and decision-makers whose interest focuses on the retrieval and validation of surface temperature/emissivity, the estimation and validation of evapotranspiration at satellite pixel scale, and the application of thermal remote sensing.
Both Prof. Huajun Tang and Prof. Zhao-Liang Li work at the Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences (CAAS), China.
Techniques of vision-based motion analysis aim to detect, track, identify, and generally understand the behavior of objects in image sequences. With the growth of video data in a wide range of applications from visual surveillance to human-machine interfaces, the ability to automatically analyze and understand object motions from video footage is of increasing importance. Among the latest developments in this field is the application of statistical machine learning algorithms for object tracking, activity modeling, and recognition.Developed from expert contributions to the first and second International Workshop on Machine Learning for Vision-Based Motion Analysis, this important text/reference highlights the latest algorithms and systems for robust and effective vision-based motion understanding from a machine learning perspective. Highlighting the benefits of collaboration between the communities of object motion understanding and machine learning, the book discusses the most active forefronts of research, including current challenges and potential future directions.Topics and features: provides a comprehensive review of the latest developments in vision-based motion analysis, presenting numerous case studies on state-of-the-art learning algorithms; examines algorithms for clustering and segmentation, and manifold learning for dynamical models; describes the theory behind mixed-state statistical models, with a focus on mixed-state Markov models that take into account spatial and temporal interaction; discusses object tracking in surveillance image streams, discriminative multiple target tracking, and guidewire tracking in fluoroscopy; explores issues of modeling for saliency detection, human gait modeling, modeling of extremely crowded scenes, and behavior modeling from video surveillance data; investigates methods for automatic recognition of gestures in Sign Language, and human action recognition from small training sets.Researchers, professional engineers, and graduate students in computer vision, pattern recognition and machine learning, will all find this text an accessible survey of machine learning techniques for vision-based motion analysis. The book will also be of interest to all who work with specific vision applications, such as surveillance, sport event analysis, healthcare, video conferencing, and motion video indexing and retrieval.
This book summarizes a series of research work on integrated process planning and scheduling (IPPS) done by the authors, focusing on discussing the properties, novel solution methods and applications of process planning, scheduling and IPPS problems under different machining environments. It is a valuable reference resource for teachers, students and researchers working in the fields of engineering, management science and other related disciplines.
This book re-theorizes the relationship between pedagogy and play. The authors suggest that pedagogical play is characterized by conceptual reciprocity (a pedagogical approach for supporting children's academic learning through joint play) and agentic imagination (a concept that when present in play, affords the child's motives and imagination a critical role in learning and development). These new concepts are brought to life using a cultural-historical approach to the analysis of play, supported in each chapter by visual narratives used as a research method for re-theorising play as a pedagogical activity. Whenever a cultural-historical approach is applied to understanding pedagogical play, the whole context of the playful event is always included. Further, the child's cultural environment is taken into account in order to better understand their play. Children from different countries play differently for many reasons, which may include their resources, local cultural beliefs about play and specific pedagogical practices. The inclusion and acknowledgement of social, cultural and historical contexts gives credence and value to understanding play from both child and adult perspectives, which the authors believe is important for the child's learning and development. As such, the relationships that children and adults have with human and non-human others, as well as any connections with artefacts and the material environment, are included in all considerations of pedagogical play.
This book offers a rich collection of international research narratives that reveal the qualities and value of peer play. It presents new understandings of peer play and relationships in chapters drawn from richly varied contexts that involve sibling play, collaborative peer play, and joint play with adults. The book explores social strategies such as cooperation, negotiation, playing with rules, expressing empathy, and sharing imaginary emotional peer play experiences. Its reconceptualization of peer play and relationships promotes new thinking on children's development in contemporary worlds. It shows how new knowledge generated about young children's play with peers illuminates how they learn and develop within and across communities, families, and educational settings in diverse cultural contexts. The book addresses issues that are relevant for parents, early years' professionals and academics, including the role of play in learning at school, the role of adults in self-initiated play, and the long-term impact of early friendships. The book makes clear how recent cultural differences involve digital, engineering and imaginary peer play. The book follows a clear line of argument highlighting the importance of play-based learning and stress the importance of further knowledge of children's interaction in their context. This book aims to highlight the narration of peer play, mostly leaning on a sociocultural theoretical perspective, where many chapters have a cultural-historical theoretical frame and highlight children's social situation of development. Polly Bjrk-Willén, Linkping University, Sweden
Two typical hybrid laser surface modification processes, i.e. electro/magnetic field aided laser process and supersonic laser deposition technology, are introduced in the book, to solve the common problems in quality control and low efficiency of the laser-only surface modification technology, high contamination and high consumption of the traditional surface modification technology. This book focuses on the principle, characteristics, special equipment, process and industrial applications of the hybrid laser surface modification processes based on the recent research results of the author's group, and provides theoretical guidance and engineering reference for the researchers and engineers engaging in the field of surface engineering and manufacturing.
This book covers the up-to-date advancement of respiratory monitoring in ventilation support as well as detecting the physiological responses to therapeutic interventions to avoid complications. Mechanical ventilation nowadays remains the cornerstone in life saving in critically ill patients with and without respiratory failure. However, conclusive evidences show that mechanical ventilation can also cause lung damage, specifically, in terms of ventilator-induced lung injury.
Respiratory monitoring encloses a series of physiological and pathophysiological measurements, from basic gas exchange and ventilator wave forms to more sophisticated diaphragm function and lung volume assessments. The progress of respiratory monitoring has always been accompanied by advances in technology. However, how to properly conduct the procedures and correctly interpret the data requires clear definition.
The book introduces respiratory monitoring techniques and data analysis, including gas exchange, respiratory mechanics, thoracic imaging, lung volume measurement, and extra-vascular lung water measurement in the initial part. How to interpret the acquired and derived parameters and to illustrate their clinical applications is presented thoroughly. In the following part, the applications of respiratory monitoring in specific diseases and conditions is introduced, including acute respiratory distress syndrome, obstructive pulmonary diseases, patient-ventilator asynchrony, non-invasive ventilation, brain injury with increased intracranial pressure, ventilator-induced diaphragm dysfunction, and weaning from mechanical ventilation.
This book is intended primarily for ICU physicians and other practitioners including respiratory therapists, ICU nurses and trainees who come into contact with patients under mechanical ventilation. This book also provides guidance for clinical researchers who take part in respiratory and mechanical ventilation researches.
This exciting new book brings fresh knowledge of affective pedagogies in early childhood education and care. The book draws on cultural-historical theory in alignment with visual methodologies to elucidate infant-toddlers' affective pedagogies through analysis of case examples. The book reveals contemporary pedagogical practices in the infant-toddler space like mealtimes, nappy change and play. These pedagogical practices show the highly specialised nature of working with infant-toddlers such as the affective relations between educators and infant-toddlers, affective dialogue, affective engagement, and the creation of affective spaces. The value of collaboration is highlighted through creating an affective space for educators to become aware, reflect and position themselves as effective and affective educators. The book introduces innovative methodological tools such as images and collective drawings for collaborative reflection.
Provides a comprehensive, yet practical source of reference, and excellent foundation for comparing the properties and performance of coatings and selecting the most suitable materials based on specific service needs and environmental factors. Coating technology has developed significant techniques for protecting existing infrastructure from corrosion and erosion, maintaining and enhancing the performance of equipment, and provided novel functions such as smart coatings greatly benefiting the medical device, energy, automotive and construction industries. The mechanisms, usage, and manipulation of cutting-edge coating methods are the focus of this book. Not only are the working mechanisms of coating materials explored in great detail, but also craft designs for further optimization of more uniform, safe, stable, and scalable coatings. A group of leading experts in different coating technologies demonstrate their main applications, identify the key bottlenecks, and outline future prospects. Advanced Coating Materials broadly covers the coating techniques, including cold spray, plasma vapor deposition, chemical vapor deposition, sol-gel method, etc., and their significant applications in microreactor technology, super(de)wetting, joint implants, electrocatalyst, etc. Numerous kinds of coating structures are addressed, including nanosize particles, biomimicry structures, metals and complexed materials, along with the environmental and human compatible biopolymers resulting from microbial activities. This state-of-the-art book is divided into three parts: (1) Materials and Methods: Design and Fabrication, (2) Coating Materials: Nanotechnology, and (3) Advanced Coating Technology and Applications.
As one of the most important classes of soft materials, supramolecular materials are of a mixture of networks of molecular chains/fibrils and a liquid. These self-assembled fibrous/ molecular architectures exhibit various functionalities, ie. superhydrophobicity or superior mechanical strength, etc. and consist of the controllable structures.
They can be functioned via micro/nano engineering, to have some particular added functions, ie. emission materials, tissue engineering scaffolds, bio imaging and sensing materials etc. They have therefore found broad applications in photography, cosmetics, food and petroleum industries and not the least in the biomedical sector where there is strong interest in these materials as drug delivery agents.
The book covers the most important soft functional materials, including small molecule physical gels, silkworm silk and spider silk fibers and functional fibers, with respect both to the fundamentals and to development and engineering methods. It provides the reader with the necessary knowledge on the chemical and physical formation mechanisms of these materials and demonstrates that one can rationally design and tune the fibrillar networks so that the resulting materials exhibit the desired functionalities.
This work is a must-have for all Materials Scientists, Polymer Chemists, Condensed Matter Physicists, and Biotechnologists working in this interdisciplinary field.