The present work focuses on the diagnosis of TB, covering all its possible ways. Content ranges from clinical diagnosis, which is the first instance in approaching tuberculosis, until the gold standard microbiological and molecular diagnostic tools, which are useful due to its speed and high sensitivity. Additionally, diagnosis of latent TB infection, which is key feature to controlling TB under a public health perspective, is also addressed. This book is intended to be a quick and useful reference for the diagnosis of TB, being of special use for clinicians, pulmonologists and microbiologists, but also to every professional, professors and students involved in research and practice on TB diagnosis. In addition, it is intended to be of interest to professionals all over the world, but especially in countries with high TB endemicity, where the proper diagnosis of TB is a topic of major importance.
This book begins with an observation: At the time when empiricism arose and slowly established itself, the word itself had not yet been coined. Hence the central question of this volume: What does it mean to conduct empirical science in early modern Europe? How can we catch the elusive figure of the empiricist?Our answer focuses on the practices established by representative scholars. This approach allows us to demonstrate two things. First, that empiricism is not a monolith but exists in a plurality of forms. Today's understanding of the empirical sciences was gradually shaped by the exchanges among scholars combining different traditions, world views and experimental settings. Second, the long proclaimed antagonism between empiricism and rationalism is not the whole story. Our case studies show that a very fruitful exchange between both systems of thought occurred. It is a story of integration, appropriation and transformation more than one of mere opposition. We asked twelve authors to explore these fascinating new facets of empiricisms. The plurality of their voices mirrors the multiple faces of the concept itself. Every contribution can be understood as a piece of a much larger puzzle. Together, they help us better understand the emergence of empiricism and the inventiveness of the scientific enterprise.
This book offers an interdisciplinary approach to child abuse providing a comprehensive overview of the topic. From fetal life to adolescence, various patterns of child abuse are described in 23 chapters with highlight on early diagnostic features and differential diagnoses. Data on psychological and domestic violence is also presented. Readers will improve their knowledge in the field of child abuse, helping to identify such situations at onset and subsequently prevent recurrences.This volume outlines and summarizes the main different judicial processes for child abuse around the world. The book also provides the unique angle and information from experts in France, who unlike other countries, are fully independent of all other parties i.e. judges, prosecutors and families, thus having a unique insight to the origin and context of the violence. Insight to their approach can lead to better prevention of abuse around the world.Written by a panel of authors including paediatricians, radiologists, forensic scientists, a judge, a magistrate and a psychologist, this book is of interest to professionals involved in pediatrics healthcare, students, medical doctors or nurses. Beyond the field of health, the book may also concern professionals of social and judicial areas who deal with child abuse.
Utilizing the results of a case study on the Gare-Lac sector in the city of Yverdon-les-Bains - the site is currently a large urban brownfield, intended to host ca. 3,800 additional inhabitants and 1,200 jobs upon completion - this work examines how to design attractive urban neighbourhoods that generate endogenous economic activity and foster socio-cultural dynamics, while moving towards local energy self-sufficiency. Exploring the different dimensions influencing energy self-sufficiency at the neighbourhood scale by integrating parameters related to buildings, infrastructure, mobility, food, goods and services, the work focuses on three scenarios (technological, behavioural and symbiotic) for the future development of this neighbourhood through 2035. The scenarios test different design strategies related to industrial symbioses, production, storage, transportation, and urban agriculture.
This book reviews the most important issues related to acetabular revision hip surgery and assesses the different management procedures that are currently used in light of the challenging major defects. Since the 1970s there has been a continual rise in the annual number of total hip arthroplasty (THA) procedures which has increased the demand for revision surgeries. Most revisions operations of the hip are the result of acetabular problems and early failures are usually related to acetabular bone defects in complex primary THAs. Long-term failures are mostly due to wear debris and osteolysis-related problems and both types of complications are presented throughout the book. Surgeons with a special interest in hip reconstruction surgery will find this book to be an essential resource for successfully dealing with highly complex revision procedures.
In the context of Geographical Information Systems (GIS) the book offers a timely review Map Projections. The first chapters are of foundational type. We introduce the mapping from a left Riemann manifold to a right one specified as conformal, equiaerial and equidistant, perspective and geodetic. In particular, the mapping from a Riemann manifold to a Euclidean manifold ("plane") and the design of various coordinate systems are reviewed . A speciality is the treatment of surfaces of Gaussian curvature zero. The largest part is devoted for mapping the sphere and the ellipsoid-of-revolution to tangential plane, cylinder and cone (pseudo-cone) using the polar aspect, transverse as well as oblique aspect. Various Geodetic Mappings as well as the Datum Problem sre reviewed.In the first extension we introduce optimal map projections by variational calculus for the sphere, respectively the ellipsoid generating harmonic maps. The second extension reviews alternative maps for structures , namely torus (pneu), hyperboloid (cooling tower), paraboloid (parabolic mirror), onion shape (church tower) as well as clothoid (Hight Speed Railways) used in Project Surveying. Third, we present the Datum Transformation described by the Conformal Group C10(3) in a threedimensional Euclidean space , a ten parameter conformal transformation. It leaves infinitesimal angles and distance ratios equivariant.Numerical examples from classical and new map projections as well as twelve appendices document the Wonderful World of Map Projections.
In this book, the authors provide insights into the basics of adaptive filtering, which are particularly useful for students taking their first steps into this field. They start by studying the problem of minimum mean-square-error filtering, i.e., Wiener filtering. Then, they analyze iterative methods for solving the optimization problem, e.g., the Method of Steepest Descent. By proposing stochastic approximations, several basic adaptive algorithms are derived, including Least Mean Squares (LMS), Normalized Least Mean Squares (NLMS) and Sign-error algorithms. The authors provide a general framework to study the stability and steady-state performance of these algorithms. The affine Projection Algorithm (APA) which provides faster convergence at the expense of computational complexity (although fast implementations can be used) is also presented. In addition, the Least Squares (LS) method and its recursive version (RLS), including fast implementations are discussed. The book closes with the discussion of several topics of interest in the adaptive filtering field.
Spatial data analysis has seen explosive growth in recent years. Both in mainstream statistics and econometrics as well as in many applied ?elds, the attention to space, location, and interaction has become an important feature of scholarly work. The methodsdevelopedto dealwith problemsofspatialpatternrecognition,spatialau- correlation, and spatial heterogeneity have seen greatly increased adoption, in part due to the availability of user friendlydesktopsoftware. Throughhis theoretical and appliedwork,ArthurGetishasbeena majorcontributing?gureinthisdevelopment. In this volume, we take both a retrospective and a prospective view of the ?eld. We use the occasion of the retirement and move to emeritus status of Arthur Getis to highlight the contributions of his work. In addition, we aim to place it into perspective in light of the current state of the art and future directions in spatial data analysis. To this end, we elected to combine reprints of selected classic contributions by Getiswithchapterswrittenbykeyspatialscientists.Thesescholarswerespeci?cally invited to react to the earlier work by Getis with an eye toward assessing its impact, tracing out the evolution of related research, and to re?ect on the future broadening of spatial analysis. The organizationof the book follows four main themes in Getis' contributions: o Spatial analysis o Pattern analysis o Local statistics o Applications For each of these themes, the chapters provide a historical perspective on early methodological developments and theoretical insights, assessments of these c- tributions in light of the current state of the art, as well as descriptions of new techniques and applications.
This book draws upon Vygotsky's idea of perezhivanie, emotions and imagination, and introduces the concepts of subjective sense and subjective configuration. These concepts are crucial for explaining and understanding children's development from a cultural-historical perspective. A book which theorises the relations between the social and the individual through a study of a child's perezhivanie, which analyses emotions more holistically, and advances the concepts of subjective sense and subjective configuration, is much needed. This book examines the complexity of human development through a comprehensive elaboration of these concepts, allowing for new insights to be put forward. It doesn't always follow the chronological order of Vygotsky's publications, as many of his works remained in the family archives until the 1980s, when his Selected Works were first published in Russian. There has long been a need for a contemporary book on the scholarly treatment of perezhevanie, emotions, and subjectivity, and as such this book revisits dominant representations of these concepts and then puts forward new ways of conceptualising and using them in empirical research. The chapters cover a broad range of case studies where the concepts of perezhivanie, emotions and imagination and subjective sense and subjective configuration are used to give new empirical and theoretical insights into the study of human development.
This book offers a theoretical and epistemological-methodological framework as an alternative approach to the instrumental-descriptive methodology that has prevailed in psychology to date. It discusses the differences between the proposed approach and other theoretical and methodological positions, such as discourse analysis, phenomenology and hermeneutics. Further, it puts forward a proposal that allows the demands of studying subjectivity to be addressed from a cultural-historical standpoint.
The book mainly highlights case studies that have been conducted in various countries, and which employ or depart from the theoretical, epistemological and methodological proposals that guide this book. The research discussed here introduces readers to new discussions on theoretical and methodological issues in subjectivity that have increasingly attracted interest.
This book opens up a critical dialogue within and across the theoretical traditions of critical psychology and cultural-historical psychology. It explores and addresses fundamental issues and problems within both traditions, with a view to identifying new avenues for productive discussion and cooperation between these two important movements in contemporary psychology. Accordingly, the book gathers contributions from a range of internationally respected researchers from both fields who have demonstrated a willingness to look critically, and self-critically, at their theoretical allegiances and trajectories. This book provides readers with the opportunity to both appreciate and reflect on fundamental differences of perspective across the `cultural-historical'/'critical' psychology divide and, thereby, to consider and debate key issues facing the discipline of psychology more generally.