Stephen Smith

  • L'Europe vieillit et se dépeuple. L'Afrique déborde de jeunes et de vie. Une migration de masse va se produire. Son ampleur et ses conditions constituent l'un des plus grands défis du xxie  siècle.
    L'Union européenne compte aujourd'hui 510 millions d'habitants vieillissants  ; l'Afrique 1,25 milliard, dont quarante pour cent ont moins de quinze ans. En 2050, 450 millions d'Européens feront face à 2,5 milliards d'Africains. D'ici à 2100, trois personnes sur quatre venant au monde naîtront au sud du Sahara.
    L'Afrique «  émerge  ». En sortant de la pauvreté absolue, elle se met en marche. Dans un premier temps, le développement déracine  : il donne à un plus grand nombre les moyens de partir. Si les Africains suivent l'exemple d'autres parties du monde en développement, l'Europe comptera dans trente ans entre 150 et 200 millions d'Afro-Européens, contre 9 millions à l'heure actuelle.
    Une pression migratoire de cette ampleur va soumettre l'Europe à une épreuve sans précédent, au risque de consommer la déchirure entre ses élites cosmopolites et ses populistes nativistes. L'État-providence sans frontières est une illusion ruineuse. Vouloir faire de la Méditerranée la douve d'une «  forteresse Europe  » en érigeant autour du continent de l'opulence et de la sécurité sociale des remparts - des grillages, un mur d'argent, une rançon versée aux États policiers en première ligne pour endiguer le flot - corrompt les valeurs européennes.
    L'égoïsme nationaliste et l'angélisme humaniste sont uniment dangereux. Guidé par la rationalité des faits, cet essai de géographie humaine assume la nécessité d'arbitrer entre intérêts et idéaux.

  • « L'Afrique noire est mal partie », alertait René Dumont en 1962, alors que le « soleil des indépendances » venait de se lever sur le continent, résolu à prendre son destin en main. Quarante ans plus tard, mal partie et jamais arrivée, l'Afrique se meurt : 3,3 millions de victimes dans la guerre au Congo-Kinshasa, 800 000 Tutsi massacrés lors du génocide au Rwanda, 200 000 Hutu tués au cours de leur fuite à travers l'ex-Zaïre, 300 000 morts au Burundi, autant en Somalie, sans parler du Soudan, du Congo-Brazzaville, du Liberia, de la Sierra Leone, de la Côte d'Ivoire...
    La moitié du continent est dévastée par des « guerres d'écorcheurs » ; l'autre vivote entre crise et corruption, tribalisme et anarchie. Émigration clandestine, fuite des cerveaux : les meilleurs partent. Dans nombre de pays, les fonctionnaires cumulent des mois, voire des années, d'arriérés de salaire, les hôpitaux sont des mouroirs, les écoles fermées. L'État s'effondre. Seuls quelques îlots émergent dans un océan de malheur. Le sida frappe partout, emporte les élites, réduit l'espérance de vie de quinze à vingt ans.
    Pourquoi l'Afrique meurt-elle ? Après avoir été martyrisée par la traite esclavagiste et soumise par le colonialisme, l'Afrique, handicapée dans le commerce international, en retard sur tous les plans, se suicide. Ses habitants, tétanisés par un présent qui n'a pas d'avenir, s'enferment dans un autisme identitaire. Face à la mondialisation, ils capitulent en postulant « l'homme noir » irréductible à l'universel.
     

  • Pour la première fois dans l'histoire, l'humanitaire fait la guerre. Mais Restore Hope, le débarquement spectaculaire des marines sur les plages de Mogadiscio et la relève prise par l'ONU, désormais engagée dans des « raids punitifs », n'auront été qu'un entracte entre deux catastrophes : la famine, résultat d'une guerre civile qui a fauche 300 000 Somaliens dans l'indifférence d'un monde longtemps coupable de non-assistance a population en danger ; la tentative de restauration d'un Etat victime d'un « suicide national », livré aux seigneurs de la guerre, ceux-là même qui ont pillé et dévasté le pays au prix d'une génération.
    Ce livre retrace tous les épisodes du drame somalien, de 1989 à juillet 1993, de la lente et sanglante agonie du régime de Siad Barre a sa chute, des luttes fratricides à la famine, de l'intervention militaro-humanitaire des Américains au retour de l'ONU. Il montre comment l'humanitaire a tenu lieu de politique a une communauté internationale plus soucieuse de soulager sa conscience, à n'importe quel prix, que de comprendre, pour la résoudre, la crise que traverse un pays abandonne. L'échec est dès lors inéluctable. Nourrie de force, manu militari, sans Etat ni armature morale, son histoire et sa culture scandaleusement ignorées en dépit d'un déferlement cathodique exceptionnel, la Somalie est sur le point de devenir un « cimetière » de l'aide humanitaire, terra incognita ou rôdera à nouveau la mort, dans l'indifférence des bienfaiteurs d'hier.
    Entre carnet de route et essai, cet ouvrage, rempli d'informations inédites, allie la rigueur de la démonstration à la vivacité du reportage.
    Stephen Smith est, depuis 1988, le responsable Afrique de Libération. A plusieurs reprises, notamment au moment de la chute du dictateur Siad Barre, il a été l'un des très rares journalistes occidentaux présents en Somalie.

  • For a growing number of British holidaymakers, Cuba is a Caribbean paradise, but it is also a land of cutbacks and economic instability. Stephen Smith comes to live on the island, and his search for the real Cuba inevitably becomes a search for Fidel Castro too. Before meeting his quarry, Smith travels extensively through the 'land of miracles' in an old American automobile. His highly-personalised account features a bloody initiation into a voodoo-like cult, dining on giant rat, and checking into the Love Hotel. And he goes on manoeuvres in the Everglades with armed, but not especially competent, Cuban exiles dreaming of a second Bay of Pigs. With disarming wit and considerable insight, Stephen Smith investigates a country where communism and voodoo coexist, and where the influence of its leader of forty years continues to throw a long shadow.

  • One of the most violent countries on earth, where the cause of death is regularly 'massacre', drink drivers play chicken and kidnap stories pass for dinner party conversation; nine times more dangerous than the United States, Columbia is no place for the nervous traveller. So it is much against his better judgement that, in the summer of 1998, coinciding with a World Cup and a general election, journalist Stephen Smith finds himself boarding the Cocaine Train out of Cali, home of Columbia's infamous drugs cartel.
    Its passengers prey to theives, extortionists and a dozen different varieties of paramilitary, the Cocaine Train is one of the last remnants of a once great railway system, and Smith is riding in it in search of a grandfather he barely knew: Fred Leslie Frost, pioneering railwayman, upright citizen and diplomat, with a Columbian mistress and an illegitimate son. As remote from his suburban British origins as it is possible to imagine.

  • UNDERGROUND ENGLAND takes an extraordinary and original look at our island nation - from below. Stephen Smith quite literally delves into the unknown country underneath ploughed fields, clifftops and market towns. UNDERGROUND ENGLAND will explore rudimentary earth dwellings and hidden Cold War cities; sulphurous natural springs and manmade underground waterways; priest holes and subterranean nooks created with more sinister purposes in mind. The author visits the endless military tunnels built below Chatham since the Napoleonic Wars; and the secret labyrinth quarried out under Liverpool by a religious eccentric. He gets into tight spots with speleologists, and gamely ventures down haunted tunnels and into the mythical resting-places of English kings. A fascinating and eye-opening exploration of the world that lies beneath our feet.

  • What is visible to the naked eye has been exhaustively raked over; in UNDERGROUND LONDON, acclaimed travel writer Stephen Smith provides an alternative guide and history of the capital. It's a journey through the passages and tunnels of the city, the bunkers and tunnels, crypts and shadows. As well as being a contemporary tour of underground London, it's also an exploration through time: Queen Boudicca lies beneath Platform 10 at King's Cross (legend has it); Dick Turpin fled the Bow Street Runners along secret passages leading from the cellar of the Spaniards pub in North London; the remains of a pre-Christian Mithraic temple have been found near the Bank of England; on the platforms of the now defunct King William Street Underground, posters still warn that 'Careless talk costs lives'.
    Stephen Smith uncovers the secrets of the city by walking through sewers, tunnels under such places as Hampton Court, ghost tube stations, and long lost rivers such as the Fleet and the Tyburn. This is 'alternative' history at its best.

  • Taxation is crucial to the functioning of the modern state. Tax revenues pay for public services - roads, the courts, defence, welfare assistance to the poor and elderly, and in many countries much of health care and education too. More than one third of national income in the industrialized (OECD) countries is on average taken in taxation. Taxes affect individuals in many ways. Taxes paid on income and spending directly reduce taxpayer disposable income, taxpayersface the hassle of tax returns and making payments, and they may be anxious about the possibility of investigation and enforcement action. People also adapt their activities in various ways to reduce the impact of taxation - putting money into tax-free savings accounts, or making shopping trips toother countries where taxes are lower. Taxation is therefore central to politics and public debate. Politicians that make reckless campaign promises about taxation then have to live with the uncomfortable consequences if elected. Businesses lobby for tax breaks that they claim will create jobs and prosperity. In this Very Short Introduction Stephen Smith shows how taxes have real effects on citizens and the economy that tax policy-makers have to balance. Although tax policy will always be a highly political issue, he argues that public decisions about taxation would be improved by a better understanding of the role of taxation, and of the nature and effects of different taxes.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

  • Taxation is crucial to the functioning of the modern state. Tax revenues pay for public services - roads, the courts, defence, welfare assistance to the poor and elderly, and in many countries much of health care and education too. More than one third of national income in the industrialized (OECD) countries is on average taken in taxation. Taxes affect individuals in many ways. Taxes paid on income and spending directly reduce taxpayer disposable income, taxpayersface the hassle of tax returns and making payments, and they may be anxious about the possibility of investigation and enforcement action. People also adapt their activities in various ways to reduce the impact of taxation - putting money into tax-free savings accounts, or making shopping trips toother countries where taxes are lower. Taxation is therefore central to politics and public debate. Politicians that make reckless campaign promises about taxation then have to live with the uncomfortable consequences if elected. Businesses lobby for tax breaks that they claim will create jobs and prosperity. In this Very Short Introduction Stephen Smith shows how taxes have real effects on citizens and the economy that tax policy-makers have to balance. Although tax policy will always be a highly political issue, he argues that public decisions about taxation would be improved by a better understanding of the role of taxation, and of the nature and effects of different taxes.ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

  • From the harrowing situation of migrants trying to cross the Mediterranean in rubber dinghies to the crisis on the US-Mexico border, mass migration is one of the most urgent issues facing our societies today. At the same time, viable solutions seem ever more remote, with the increasing polarization of public attitudes and political positions. In this book, Stephen Smith focuses on `young Africa' - 40 per cent of its population are under fifteen - anda dramatic demographic shift. Today, 510 million people live inside EU borders, and 1.25 billion people in Africa. In 2050, 450 million Europeans will face 2.5 billion Africans - five times their number. The demographics are implacable. The scramble for Europe will become as inexorable as the `scramble for Africa' was at the end of the nineteenth century, when 275 million people lived north and only 100 million lived south of the Mediterranean. Then it was all about raw materials and national pride, now it is about young Africans seeking a better life on the Old Continent, the island of prosperity within their reach. If Africa's migratory patterns follow the historic precedents set by other less developed parts of the world, in thirty years a quarter of Europe's population will beAfro-Europeans. Addressingthe question of how Europe cancope with an influx of this magnitude, Smith argues for a path between the two extremes of today's debate. He advocatesmigratory policies of `good neighbourhood' equidistant from guilt-ridden self-denial and nativist egoism. This sobering analysis of the migration challenges we now face will be essential reading for anyone concerned with the great social and political questions of our time.

  • Gain all the skills required to dive into the fundamentals of the Raspberry Pi hardware architecture and how data is stored in the Pi's memory. This book provides you with working starting points for your own projects while you develop a working knowledge of Assembly language programming on the Raspberry Pi. 
    You'll learn how to interface to the Pi's hardware including accessing the GPIO ports. The book will cover the basics of code optimization as well as how to inter-operate with C and Python code, so you'll develop enough background to use the official ARM reference documentation for further projects. With Raspberry Pi Assembly Language Programming as your guide you'll study how to read and reverse engineer machine code and then then apply those new skills to study code examples and take control of your Pi's hardware and software both.What You'll LearnProgram basic ARM 32-Bit Assembly Language
    Interface with the various hardware devices on the Raspberry Pi
    Comprehend code containing Assembly language
    Use the official ARM reference documentation
    Who This Book Is For
    Coders who have already learned to program in a higher-level language like Python, Java, C#, or C and now wish to learn Assembly programming.

  • Mastering ARM hardware architecture opens a world of programming for nearly all phones and tablets including the iPhone/iPad and most Android phones. It's also the heart of many single board computers like the Raspberry Pi. Gain the skills required to dive into the fundamentals of the ARM hardware architecture with this book and start your own projects while you develop a working knowledge of assembly language for the ARM 64-bit processor.You'll review assembly language programming for the ARM Processor in 64-bit mode and write programs for a number of single board computers, including the Nvidia Jetson Nano and the Raspberry Pi (running 64-bit Linux). The book also discusses how to target assembly language programs for Apple iPhones and iPads along with 64-Bit ARM based Android phones and tablets. It covers all the tools you require, the basics of the ARM hardware architecture, all the groups of ARM 64-Bit Assembly instructions, and how data is stored in the computer's memory. In addition, interface apps to hardware such as the Raspberry Pi's GPIO ports. The book covers code optimization, as well as how to inter-operate with C and Python code. Readers will develop enough background to use the official ARM reference documentation for their own projects.With Programming with 64-Bit ARM Assembly Language as your guide you'll study how to read, reverse engineer and hack machine code, then be able to apply these new skills to study code examples and take control of both your ARM devices' hardware and software.
    What You'll LearnMake operating system calls from assembly language and include other software libraries in your projects
    Interface apps to hardware devices such as the Raspberry Pi GPIO ports
    Reverse engineer and hack code
    Use the official ARM reference documentation for your own projects
    Who This Book Is For
    Software developers who have already learned to program in a higher-level language like Python, Java, C#, or even C and now wish to learn Assembly programming.

  • Le 16 août 1972, le général Mohamed Oufkir tente d'assassiner Hassan II. Son coup d'Etat échoue. Oufkir est criblé de balles au palais. Version officielle : un "suicide de trahison". Quatre mois plus tard, Fatima, la veuve du général, et ses six enfants sont arrêtés. Pendant dix-neuf ans, ils disparaissent de la surface de la terre, emmurés dans le jardin secret du roi du Maroc.
    De la palmeraie d'Assa, leur premier lieu de détention, à Bir-Jdid, un mouroir spécialement aménagé à leur intention, de leur évasion à leur arrivée en France, Stephen Smith fait revivre la terrible odyssée de ces morts vivants qui furent les intimes du souverain. Mais il raconte aussi pour la première fois la vie controversée de leur mari et père, héros de guerre et tortionnaire, connétable du roi et "général félon", jusqu'au "drame shakespearien" qui finit par dresser l'un contre l'autre Hassan II et son homme lige.
    Récit biographique, saga familiale, livre d'enquêtes, notamment sur l'affaire Ben Barka, Oufkir, un destin marocain révèle les arcanes du palais et décrit, de l'intérieur, l'appareil répressif d'un régime que le général a servi puis trahi. Il restitue aussi son histoire à une famille dont on a voulu effacer jusqu'au souvenir. Car retracer le destin des Oufkir, ce n'est pas seulement réécrire les cinquante dernières années du Maroc, éclairer sa décolonisation et le rôle ambigu que la France y a joué et continue d'y jouer, c'est aussi remonter le fleuve amnésique de l'actualité jusqu'à la source d'un despotisme à la façade républicaine.
    Stephen Smith est le correspondant Afrique de Libération, pour lequel il couvre le Maroc depuis de nombreuses années. Ce livre, qui s'appuie sur les témoignages de Fatima, Malika, Myriam et Raouf Oufkir, est le fruit de dix années d'enquête.
    Stephen Smith a déjà publié chez Calmann-Lévy La Guerre du cacao (avec Jean-Louis Gombeaud et Corinne Moutout, 1990), Somalie, la guerre perdue de l'humanitaire (1994), Ces Messieurs Afrique 1 et 2 (avec Antoine Glaser, 1992 et 1997).

  • Sommes-nous tous Africains, émigrés du « berceau de l'humanité » ? Qu'a été, ou qu'est toujours, la Françafrique ? Comment « l'Islam noir tolérant » a-t-il donné naissance au djihadisme au Sahel ? L'Internet et la téléphonie mobile révolutionnent-ils le quotidien africain ? Comment expliquer la percée de la Chine en Afrique ?

    Faire le tour d'un continent sept fois plus vaste que l'Union européenne en explorant son histoire, sa culture, ses évolutions sociales, économiques, politiques et géopolitiques, ses épreuves du passé - esclavage, colonisation, guerres - et ses promesses d'avenir, tel est le pari ambitieux de ce livre.

    L'exceptionnelle jeunesse de l'Afrique marque ses réalités contemporaines : 40 % de ses habitants ont moins de 15 ans. Le quasi-doublement de sa population d'ici à 2050 va décupler les défis comme les opportunités. L'Afrique trouvera-t-elle les moyens pour nourrir, loger, former et employer tous ses jeunes ?

    Le niveau de son développement, de sa stabilité politique et de son état sanitaire, le rythme de l'émigration ou sa contribution à la (dé-)pollution de la planète concernent plus que jamais l'Europe et le reste du monde. Voici 100 clés pour mieux comprendre les enjeux présents et futurs de la « jeune Afrique ».

  • Première grande biographie de Jean-Bedel Bokassa, ce livre relate l'histoire d'un "indigène" devenu enfant de troupe, officier de l'armée française, maréchal président à vie puis empereur de Centrafrique et, après sa condamnation à mort et sept années de prison, "treizième apôtre du Christ", comme il s'était lui-même baptisé. Un destin hors du commun qui est aussi un formidable terrain d'enquête sur les imbiguïtés - et la "familiarité" - des relations franco-africaines.
    Car si l'on a brodé sur le "soudard" de la coloniale qui s'est offert un couronnement impérial, sur ses délires mégalomaniaques, son anthropophagie prétendue et l'amitié trahie avec son "cousin" Valéry Giscard d'Estaing, on oublie trop souvent que, pendant treize ans, cette "bouffonnerie tropicale" a été un règne ordinaire soutenu par la France. Plutôt que de mettre en scène un "roi nègre" en habits napoléoniens, il restait à démonter les ressorts et les appuis de cette tyrannie, à revenir sur un sacre co-organisé par la France, à rouvrir le dossier de "l'affaire des diamants" et à éclairer un passé riche en révélations scandaleuses.

  •     L'Afrique du Sud passe pour « le pays de Mandela ». Mais l'homme qui incarne le « miracle » politique en Afrique du Sud est si exceptionnel qu'il ne peut être représentatif d'un pays couturé des plaies de l'apartheid. Ce privilège ambigu revient à son ex-épouse, la « mère de la Nation » durant les décennies de combat, mais qui n'est finalement pas devenue la Première dame de la « nouvelle » Afrique du Sud, parce qu'elle s'est rendue coupable de crimes de sang à la tête du Mandela United Football Club, sa milice personnelle. 
        Peut-on combattre un système hideux comme l'apartheid, sans en emprunter des traits, sans embrasser la violence et la haine ? Voilà le fil conducteur de cette enquête biographique, riche en épisodes inédits, qui est aussi un retour sur le passé et une interrogation sur l'avenir de l'Afrique du Sud. Il s'agit ici de retracer une histoire extraordinaire, celle d'une fille du Transkei qui « monte » à Johannesburg, la Cité de l'or, où elle épouse en même temps que l'étoile montante de l'ANC, une lutte sans merci qu'elle devra mener seule. Durant les vingt-sept années que Nelson passera debout en prison, Winnie affronte l'apartheid au quotidien : elle est harcelée jour et nuit par la police, séparée de ses deux filles, torturée en prison, trahie par des « amis », assignée à résidence puis « bannie » au coeur du pays afrikaner, totalement isolée dans la « petite Sibérie » qu'est son exil intérieur. En dépit de toutes ses blessures intimes, c'est Winnie qui inspire la résistance contre l'ordre ségrégationniste, c'est elle - bien plus que l'ANC - qui est en phase avec les townships rebelles, d'abord avec la jeunesse de Soweto, en 1976, puis avec les ghettos du pays tout entier au milieu des années 1980. Cependant, à l'heure de la « libération » négociée, elle perd, outre ses postes dans le mouvement anti-apartheid arrivé au pouvoir, à la fois son mari et son honneur. Elle n'est plus qu'une icône abîmée. Et si c'était cela la vraie image de l'Afrique du Sud, le « pays de Mandela » qui se révèlera après la mort de Nelson ?

  • In The Naked Voice, W. Stephen Smith invites all singers to improve their vocal technique through his renowned and time-tested wholistic method. Focusing not only on the most important technical, but also on the often overlooked psychological and spiritual elements of learning to sing, his book allows readers to develop their own full and individual identities as singers. With philosophies and techniques drawn from a lifetime of teaching voice, Smith demonstrates how one can reveal the true unique sound of one's own voice by singing with the whole self. The master's method, presented in concrete and comprehensible terms with helpful illustrations, is enhanced by a companion website containing exercises performed by singers from Smith's own studio-singers whose talent and training bring them across the country and around the world. The clear and easy style of The Naked Voice welcomes the reader into Smith's teaching studio, and into conversation with Smith himself as he presents the six simple and elegant exercises that form the core of his method. These exercises provide a foundation for free singing, and lead singers through the step-by-step process of mastering the technique. Throughout, Smith speaks sympathetically and encouragingly to the singer in search of an unencumbered and effective approach to the art. The Naked Voice is a must-read for all singers, giving teachers and students, amateurs and professionals, access to the methods and concepts that have earned Smith his reputation as one of the most highly-sought-after vocal instructors in the international arena today.

  • If environmental protection is costly, how much should we spend on pollution control? Is it worth reducing pollution to zero, or should we accept some level of pollution because of the economic benefits associated with it? How can we assess the benefits that people get from a less-polluted atmosphere?

    In broad terms, environmental economics looks at how economic activity and policy affect the environment in which we live. Some production generates pollution, such as power station emissions causing acid rain and contributing to global warming, but household consumption decisions also affect the environment, where more consumption can mean more waste sent to polluting incinerators. However, pollution is not an inevitable consequence of economic activity - environmental policies can require
    /> polluting firms to clean up their emissions, and can encourage people to change their behaviour, through environmental taxes on polluting goods, for example. Generally, though, these measures will involve some costs, such as installing pollution control equipment. So there's a trade-off: a cleaner
    environment, but economic costs. In recent years, many economists have argued for greater use of incentive in the form of pollution charges and emissions trading rather than more traditional direct regulation of polluters.

    In this Very Short Introduction, Stephen Smith discusses environmental issues including pollution control, reducing environmental damage, and global climate change policies, answering questions about how we should balance environmental and economic considerations, and what form government policies should take. Including many illustrative case studies and examples he shows that this is an exciting field of economics, and one that is at the heart of many public debates and controversies.

    ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

  • Anglais Contract Theory

    Smith Stephen A

    This book is both an examination of, and a contribution to, our understanding of the theoretical foundations of the common law of contract. Focusing on contemporary debates in contract theory, Contract Theory aims to help readers better understand the nature and justification of the general idea of contractual obligation, as well as the nature and justification of the particular rules that make up the law of contract.

  • In The Naked Voice, W. Stephen Smith invites all singers to improve their vocal technique through his renowned and time-tested wholistic method. Focusing not only on the most important technical, but also on the often overlooked psychological and spiritual elements of learning to sing, his book allows readers to develop their own full and individual identities as singers. With philosophies and techniques drawn from a lifetime of teaching voice, Smith demonstrates how one can reveal the true unique sound of one's own voice by singing with the whole self. The master's method, presented in concrete and comprehensible terms with helpful illustrations, is enhanced by a companion website containing exercises performed by singers from Smith's own studio-singers whose talent and training bring them across the country and around the world. The clear and easy style of The Naked Voice welcomes the reader into Smith's teaching studio, and into conversation with Smith himself as he presents the six simple and elegant exercises that form the core of his method. These exercises provide a foundation for free singing, and lead singers through the step-by-step process of mastering the technique. Throughout, Smith speaks sympathetically and encouragingly to the singer in search of an unencumbered and effective approach to the art. The Naked Voice is a must-read for all singers, giving teachers and students, amateurs and professionals, access to the methods and concepts that have earned Smith his reputation as one of the most highly-sought-after vocal instructors in the international arena today.

  • If environmental protection is costly, how much should we spend on pollution control? Is it worth reducing pollution to zero, or should we accept some level of pollution because of the economic benefits associated with it? How can we assess the benefits that people get from a less-polluted atmosphere?

    In broad terms, environmental economics looks at how economic activity and policy affect the environment in which we live. Some production generates pollution, such as power station emissions causing acid rain and contributing to global warming, but household consumption decisions also affect the environment, where more consumption can mean more waste sent to polluting incinerators. However, pollution is not an inevitable consequence of economic activity - environmental policies can require
    /> polluting firms to clean up their emissions, and can encourage people to change their behaviour, through environmental taxes on polluting goods, for example. Generally, though, these measures will involve some costs, such as installing pollution control equipment. So there's a trade-off: a cleaner
    environment, but economic costs. In recent years, many economists have argued for greater use of incentive in the form of pollution charges and emissions trading rather than more traditional direct regulation of polluters.

    In this Very Short Introduction, Stephen Smith discusses environmental issues including pollution control, reducing environmental damage, and global climate change policies, answering questions about how we should balance environmental and economic considerations, and what form government policies should take. Including many illustrative case studies and examples he shows that this is an exciting field of economics, and one that is at the heart of many public debates and controversies.

    ABOUT THE SERIES: The Very Short Introductions series from Oxford University Press contains hundreds of titles in almost every subject area. These pocket-sized books are the perfect way to get ahead in a new subject quickly. Our expert authors combine facts, analysis, perspective, new ideas, and enthusiasm to make interesting and challenging topics highly readable.

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