During the first decade of this new millennium, it is estimated that more than EUR100 billion will be invested in the third generation (3G) Universal Mobile Telecommunications System (UMTS) in Europe. This fact represents an amazing challenge from both a technical and commercial perspective. Written by experts in the field, this book gives a detailed description of the elements in the UMTS network architecture: the User Equipment (UE), the UMTS Radio Access Network (UTRAN) and the core network. The completely new protocols based on the needs of the new Wideband Code Division Multiple Access (WCDMA) air interface are highlighted by considering both Frequency- and Time-Division Duplex modes. The book further introduces the key features of existing topics in Releases 5, 6 and 7.
Statistical Models and Methods for Reliability and Survival Analysis brings together contributions by specialists in statistical theory as they discuss their applications providing up-to-date developments in methods used in survival analysis, statistical goodness of fit, stochastic processes for system reliability, amongst others. Many of these are related to the work of Professor M. Nikulin in statistics over the past 30 years. The authors gather together various contributions with a broad array of techniques and results, divided into three parts - Statistical Models and Methods, Statistical Models and Methods in Survival Analysis, and Reliability and Maintenance. The book is intended for researchers interested in statistical methodology and models useful in survival analysis, system reliability and statistical testing for censored and non-censored data.
Numerous industrial systems or natural environments involve multiphase flows with heat and mass transfer. The authors of this book present the physical modeling of these flows, in a unified way, which can include various physical aspects and several levels of complexity.
Thermal engineering and nuclear reactors; the extraction and transport of petroleum products; diesel and rocket engines; chemical engineering reactors and fluidized beds; smoke or aerosol dispersion; landslides and avalanches - the modeling of multiphase flows with heat and mass transfer for all these situations can be developed following a common methodology. This book is devoted to the description of the mathematical bases of how to incorporate adequate physical ingredients in agreement with known experimental facts and how to make the model evolve according to the required complexity.
Contents Part 1. Approach and General Equations
1. Towards a Unified Description of Multiphase Flows.
2. Instant Equations for a Piecewise Continuous Medium.
3. Description of a "Mean Multiphase Medium".
4. Equations for the Mean Continuous Medium.
Part 2. Modeling: A Single Approach Adaptable to Multiple Applications
5. The Modeling of Interphase Exchanges.
6. Modeling Turbulent Dispersion Fluxes.
7. Modeling the Mean Gas-Liquid Interface Area per Unit Volume.
8. "Large Eddy Simulation" Style Models.
9. Contribution of Thermodynamics of Irreversible Processes.
10. Experimental Methods.
11. Some Experimental Results Pertaining to Multiphase Flow Properties that Are Still Little Understood.
Part 3. From Fluidized Beds to Granular Media
12. Fluidized Beds.
13. Generalizations for Granular Media.
14. Modeling of Cauchy Tensor of Sliding Contacts.
15. Modeling the Kinetic Cauchy Stress Tensor.
Part 4. Studying Fluctuations and Probability Densities
16. Fluctuations of the Gas Phase in Reactive Two-Phase Media.
17. Temperature Fluctuations in Condensed Phases.
18. Study of the PDF for Velocity Fluctuations and Sizes of Parcels. About the Authors Roland Borghi is Professor Emeritus at Ecole Centrale Marseille in France and works as a consultant in the space, petrol and automobile sectors. His research activities cover fluid mechanics, combustion and flames, and multi-phase and granular flows. He was a member of the CNRS scientific committee and a laureate of the French Academy of Science.
Fabien Anselmet is Professor at Ecole Centrale Marseille in France. His research activities focus on the turbulence of fluids and its varied applications in industry and in fields linked to the environment. With a unified, didactic style, this text presents tangible models of multiphase flows with heat and mass transfer with attention to various levels of complexities. It addresses thermal engineering and nuclear reactors, extraction and transport of petroleum products, diesel engines and rocket engines, chemical engineering reactors and fluidized beds, smoke or aerosol dispersion, and landslides and avalanches. Engineers, researchers, and scientists will appreciate the discussions of modeling principles, flows and granular media, and fluctuations around averages.
An overview of the methods used for risk analysis in a variety of industrial sectors, with a particular focus on the consideration of human aspects, this book provides a definition of all the fundamental notions associated with risks and risk management, as well as clearly placing the discipline of risk analysis within the broader context of risk management processes.
The author begins by presenting a certain number of basic concepts, followed by the general principle of risk analysis. He then moves on to examine the ISO31000 standard, which provides a specification for the implementation of a risk management approach. The ability to represent the information we use is crucial, so the representation of knowledge, covering both information concerning the risk occurrence mechanism and details of the system under scrutiny, is also considered. The different analysis methods are then presented, firstly for the identification of risks, then for their analysis in terms of cause and effect, and finally for the implementation of safety measures.
Concrete examples are given throughout the book and the methodology and method can be applied to various fields (industry, health, organization, technical systems). Contents Part 1. General Concepts and Principles
2. Basic Notions.
3. Principles of Risk Analysis Methods.
4. The Risk Management Process (ISO31000).
Part 2. Knowledge Representation
5. Modeling Risk.
6. Measuring the Importance of a Risk.
7. Modeling of Systems for Risk Analysis.
Part 3. Risk Analysis Method
8. Preliminary Hazard Analysis.
9. Failure Mode and Effects Analysis.
10. Deviation Analysis Using the HAZOP Method.
11. The Systemic and Organized Risk Analysis Method.
12. Fault Tree Analysis.
13. Event Tree and Bow-Tie Diagram Analysis.
14. Human Reliability Analysis.
15. Barrier Analysis and Layer of Protection Analysis.
Part 4. Appendices
Appendix 1. Occupational Hazard Checklists.
Appendix 2. Causal Tree Analysis.
Appendix 3. A Few Reminders on the Theory of Probability.
Appendix 4. Useful Notions in Reliability Theory.
Appendix 5. Data Sources for Reliability.
Appendix 6. A Few Approaches for System Modelling.
Appendix 7. CaseStudy: Chemical Process.
Appendix 8. XRisk Software. About the Authors Jean-Marie Flaus is Professor at Joseph Fourier University in Grenoble, France.
This book describes the potentialities of metaheuristics for solving production scheduling problems and the relationship between these two fields.
For the past several years, there has been an increasing interest in using metaheuristic methods to solve scheduling problems. The main reasons for this are that such problems are generally hard to solve to optimality, as well as the fact that metaheuristics provide very good solutions in a reasonable time. The first part of the book presents eight applications of metaheuristics for solving various mono-objective scheduling problems. The second part is itself split into two, the first section being devoted to five multi-objective problems to which metaheuristics are adapted, while the second tackles various transportation problems related to the organization of production systems.
Many real-world applications are presented by the authors, making this an invaluable resource for researchers and students in engineering, economics, mathematics and computer science. Contents 1. An Estimation of Distribution Algorithm for Solving Flow Shop Scheduling Problems with Sequence-dependent Family Setup Times, Mansour Eddaly, Bassem Jarboui, Radhouan Bouabda, Patrick Siarry and Abdelwaheb Rebaï.
2. Genetic Algorithms for Solving Flexible Job Shop Scheduling Problems, Imed Kacem.
3. A Hybrid GRASP-Differential Evolution Algorithm for Solving Flow Shop Scheduling Problems with No-Wait Constraints, Hanen Akrout, Bassem Jarboui, Patrick Siarry and Abdelwaheb Rebaï.
4. A Comparison of Local Search Metaheuristics for a Hierarchical Flow Shop Optimization Problem with Time Lags, Emna Dhouib, Jacques Teghem, Daniel Tuyttens and Taïcir Loukil.
5. Neutrality in Flow Shop Scheduling Problems: Landscape Structure and Local Search, Marie-Eléonore Marmion.
6. Evolutionary Metaheuristic Based on Genetic Algorithm: Application to Hybrid Flow Shop Problem with Availability Constraints, Nadia Chaaben, Racem Mellouli and Faouzi Masmoudi.
7. Models and Methods in Graph Coloration for Various Production Problems, Nicolas Zufferey.
8. Mathematical Programming and Heuristics for Scheduling Problems with Early and Tardy Penalties, Mustapha Ratli, Rachid Benmansour, Rita Macedo, Saïd Hanafi, Christophe Wilbaut.
9. Metaheuristics for Biobjective Flow Shop Scheduling, Matthieu Basseur and Arnaud Liefooghe.
10. Pareto Solution Strategies for the Industrial Car Sequencing Problem, Caroline Gagné, Arnaud Zinflou and Marc Gravel.
11. Multi-Objective Metaheuristics for the Joint Scheduling of Production and Maintenance, Ali Berrichi and Farouk Yalaoui.
12. Optimization via a Genetic Algorithm Parametrizing the AHP Method for Multicriteria Workshop Scheduling, Fouzia Ounnar, Patrick Pujo and Afef Denguir.
13. A Multicriteria Genetic Algorithm for the Resource-constrained Task Scheduling Problem, Olfa Dridi, Saoussen Krichen and Adel Guitouni.
14. Metaheuristics for the Solution of Vehicle Routing Problems in a Dynamic Context, Tienté Hsu, Gilles Gonçalves and Rémy Dupas.
15. Combination of a Metaheuristic and a Simulation Model for the Scheduling of Resource-constrained Transport Activities, Virginie André, Nathalie Grangeon and Sylvie Norre.
16. Vehicle Routing Problems with Scheduling Constraints, Rahma Lahyani, Frédéric Semet and Benoît Trouillet.
17. Metaheuristics for Job Shop Scheduling with Transportation, Qiao Zhang, Hervé Manier, Marie-Ange Manier.
About the Authors Bassem Jarboui is Professor at the University of Sfax, Tunisia.
Patrick Siarry is Professor at the Laboratoire Images, Signaux et Systèmes Intelligents (LISSI), University of Paris-Est Créteil, France.
Jacques Teghem is Professor at the Universit
A voltage converter changes the voltage of an electrical power source and is usually combined with other components to create a power supply. This title is devoted to the control of static converters, which deals with pulse-width modulation (PWM) techniques, and also discusses methods for current control. Various application cases are treated. The book is ideal for professionals in power engineering, power electronics, and electric drives industries, as well as practicing engineers, university professors, postdoctoral fellows, and graduate students.
This book introduces and details the key facets of Combined Analysis - an x-ray and/or neutron scattering methodology which combines structural, textural, stress, microstructural, phase, layer, or other relevant variable or property analyses in a single approach. The text starts with basic theories related to diffraction by polycrystals and some of the most common combined analysis instrumental set-ups are detailed. Also discussed are microstructures of powder diffraction profiles; quantitative phase analysis from the Rietveld analysis; residual stress analysis for isotropic and anisotropic materials; specular x-ray reflectivity, and the various associated models.
The new digital media offers us an unprecedented memory capacity, an ubiquitous communication channel and a growing computing power. How can we exploit this medium to augment our personal and social cognitive processes at the service of human development? Combining a deep knowledge of humanities and social sciences as well as a real familiarity with computer science issues, this book explains the collaborative construction of a global hypercortex coordinated by a computable metalanguage. By recognizing fully the symbolic and social nature of human cognition, we could transform our current opaque global brain into a reflexive collective intelligence.
The Affective Computing domain, term coined by Rosalind Picard in 1997, gathers several scientific areas such as computer science, cognitive science, psychology, design and art. The humane-machine interaction systems are no longer solely fast and efficient. They aim to offer to users affective experiences: user's affective state is detected and considered within the interaction; the system displays affective state; it can reason about their implication to achieve a task or resolve a problem. In this book, we have chosen to cover various domains of research in emotion-oriented systems. Our aim is also to highlight the importance to base the computational model on theoretical foundations and on natural data.
This book concerns the analysis and design of induction heating of poor electrical conduction materials. Some innovating applications such as inductive plasma installation or transformers, thermo inductive non-destructive testing and carbon-reinforced composite materials heating are studied. Analytical, semi-analytical and numerical models are combined to obtain the best modeling technique for each case. Each model has been tested with experimental results and validated. The principal aspects of a computational package to solve these kinds of coupled problems are described. In the first chapter, the mathematical tools for coupled electromagnetic and thermal phenomena are introduced. In Chapter 2, these tools are used to analyze a radio frequency inductive plasma installation. The third chapter describes the methodology of designing a low frequency plasma transformer. Chapter 4 studies the feasibility of the thermo inductive technique for non-destructive testing and the final chapter is dedicated to the use of induction heating in the lifecycle of carbon-reinforced composite materials. Contents 1. Thermal and Electromagnetic Coupling, Javad Fouladgar, Didier Trichet and Brahim Ramdane.
2. Simplified Model of a Radiofrequency Inductive Thermal Plasma Installation, Javad Fouladgar and Jean-Pierre Ploteau.
3. Design Methodology of A Very Low-Frequency Plasma Transformer, Javad Fouladgar and Souri Mohamed Mimoune.
4. Non Destructive Testing by Thermo-Inductive Method, Javad Fouladgar, Brahim Ramdane, Didier Trichet and Tayeb Saidi.
5. Induction Heating of Composite Materials, Javad Fouladgar, Didier Trichet, Samir Bensaid and Guillaume Wasselynck
In this book, we present medical robotics, its evolution over the last 30 years in terms of architecture, design and control, and the main scientific and clinical contributions to the field.
For more than two decades, robots have been part of hospitals and have progressively become a common tool for the clinician. Because this domain has now reached a certain level of maturity it seems important and useful to provide a state of the scientific, technological and clinical achievements and still open issues.
This book describes the short history of the domain, its specificity and constraints, and mature clinical application areas. It also presents the major approaches in terms of design and control including man-machine interaction modes. A large state of the art is presented and many examples from the literature are included and thoroughly discussed.
It aims to provide both a broad and summary view of this very active domain as well as keys to understanding the evolutions of the domain and to prepare for the future. An insight to clinical evaluation is also proposed, and the book is finished with a chapter on future developments for intra-body robots.
This book gives a comprehensive view of the most recent major international research in the field of tolerancing, and is an excellent resource for anyone interested in Computer Aided Tolerating.
It is organized into 4 parts. Part 1 focuses on the more general problems of tolerance analysis and synthesis, for tolerancing in mechanical design and manufacturing processes. Part 2 specifically highlights the simulation of assembly with defects, and the influence of tolerances on the quality of the assembly. Part 3 deals with measurement aspects, and quality control throughout the life cycle. Different measurement technologies and methods for estimating uncertainty are considered. In Part 4, different aspects of tolerancing and their interactions are explored, from the definition of functional requirement to measurement processes in a PLM approach.
This book studies formal semantics in modern type theories (MTTsemantics). Compared with simple type theory, MTTs have much richer type structures and provide powerful means for adequate semantic constructions. This offers a serious alternative to the traditional settheoretical foundation for linguistic semantics and opens up a new avenue for developing formal semantics that is both model-theoretic and proof-theoretic, which was not available before the development of MTTsemantics. This book provides a reader-friendly and precise description of MTTs and offers a comprehensive introduction to MTT-semantics. It develops several case studies, such as adjectival modification and copredication, to exemplify the attractiveness of using MTTs for the study of linguistic meaning. It also examines existing proof assistant technology based on MTT-semantics for the verification of semantic constructions and reasoning in natural language. Several advanced topics are also briefly studied, including dependent event types, an application of dependent typing to event semantics.
Flows with chemical reactions can occur in various fields such as combustion, process engineering, aeronautics, the atmospheric environment and aquatics.
The examples of application chosen in this book mainly concern homogeneous reactive mixtures that can occur in propellers within the fields of process engineering and combustion:
- propagation of sound and monodimensional flows in nozzles, which may include disequilibria of the internal modes of the energy of molecules;
- ideal chemical reactors, stabilization of their steady operation points in the homogeneous case of a perfect mixture and classical instruments of experimental and theoretical analysis such as population balances, and the distribution of residence and passage times;
- laminar and turbulent flames, separating those which are premixed from those which are not and which do not exhibit the same mechanisms, but which also occur in the case of triple flames.
Flows and Chemical Reactions in Homogeneous Mixtures provides information on dimensional analysis, statistical thermodynamics with coupling between internal modes and chemical reactions, the apparition and damping of fluid turbulence as well as its statistical processing, bifurcations, flames in a confined medium and diffusion.
Contents 1. Flows in Nozzles.
2. Chemical Reactors.
3. Laminar and Turbulent Flames.
Appendix 1. Dimensionless Numbers, Similarity.
Appendix 2. Thermodynamic Functions.
Appendix 3. Concepts of Turbulence.
Appendix 4. Thermodynamic functions for a mixture in disequilibrium.
Appendix 5. Notion of bifurcation.
Appendix 6. Confined flame.
Appendix 7. Limits of Validity of the First-order Expansions for Diffusion Flames.
Over the past 20 years, software architectures have significantly contributed to the development of complex and distributed systems. Nowadays, it is recognized that one of the critical problems in the design and development of any complex software system is its architecture, i.e. the organization of its architectural elements. Software Architecture presents the software architecture paradigms based on objects, components, services and models, as well as the various architectural techniques and methods, the analysis of architectural qualities, models of representation of architectural templates and styles, their formalization, validation and testing and finally the engineering approach in which these consistent and autonomous elements can be tackled.
This book is a summary of more than a decade of research in the area of backend optimization. It contains the latest fundamental research results in this field. While existing books are often more oriented toward Masters students, this book is aimed more towards professors and researchers as it contains more advanced subjects.
It is unique in the sense that it contains information that has not previously been covered by other books in the field, with chapters on phase ordering in optimizing compilation; register saturation in instruction level parallelism; code size reduction for software pipelining; memory hierarchy effects and instruction level parallelism.
Other chapters provide the latest research results in well-known topics such as register need, and software pipelining and periodic register allocation.
CENELEC EN 50128 and IEC 62279 standards are applicable to the performance of software in the railway sector. The 2011 version of the 50128 standard firms up the techniques and methods to be implemented. This is a guide to its implementation, in order to understand the foundations of the standard and how it impacts on the activities to be undertaken, helping towards better a preparation for the independent evaluation phase, which is mandatory.
The patent system is criticized today by some practitioners and economists. In fact, there is a partial disconnection between patent demographics and productivity gains, but also the development of actors who do not innovate and who develop business models that their detractors equate with a capture of annuities or a dangerous commodification of patents. This book provides a less Manichaean view of the position of patents in the system of contemporary innovation. It first recalls that these criticisms are not new, before arguing that if these criticisms have been revived, it is because of a partial shift from an integrated innovation system to a much more fragmented and open system. This shift accompanied the promotion of a more competitive economy. The authors show that this movement is coherent with a more intensive use of patents, but also one that is more focused on their signal function than on their function of direct monetary incentive to innovation.
Modern science is at a tipping point. A new page in the history of knowledge opens with the "information paradigm", a notion which is gradually supplanting the old mechanistic vision inherited from Galileo and Newton. The author presents an overview of the place of information and communications in our time, explaining some reasons for focusing on these two notions. All areas of knowledge are concerned: philosophy, social sciences, biology, medicine, as well as physics, the so-called "queen of sciences", from quantum to cosmos. This book is intended for scientific scholars as well as those with just a general interest who are anxious to understand the major evolutions that are taking shape in fields of knowledge in the 21st Century.
Practices associated with the culture of "scholarly" reading have been developed over many centuries and annotations themselves have become the subject of study, either as additional elements in connection with the original texts or as documents in their own right. The first "scholarly" reading techniques, seen historically from the 12th Century onwards, combine reading and writing in a process known as lettrure, involving both attentive reading and commentary. The Internet has transformed this activity, adding technical layers that relate both to the reading and writing process as well as to the circulation of texts; their potential and effective augmentation, diffusion, and reception. This book examines digitized reading and writing by focusing primarily on the conditions for the co-construction of scientific knowledge and its augmentation. The authors present numerous examples of studies and personal feedback concerning the intellectual process, open critical spaces, collaborative scholarly publishing, methods for the circulation and mediatization of knowledge, as well as the techniques and tools employed.
Everyone, whether they like it or not, is exposed to electromagnetic fields, most of the time, at very low levels. In this case, they are inconsequential, but they can cause adverse health effects when they become intense enough. This topic is complex and sensitive. Covering frequencies from 0 Hz to 300 GHz, Human Exposure to Electromagnetic Fields provides an overview of this vast topic. After a reminder of the concepts of electromagnetic fields, the author presents some examples of sources of radiation in daily life and in the industrial or medical sectors. The biophysical and biological effects of these fields on the human body are detailed and the exposure limits are recalled. The exposure assessment and the implementation of the appropriate regulation within companies are also covered. Technically and practically, this book is aimed at people with a scientific background, risk prevention actors, health physicians, especially occupational doctors, and equipment designers.
This book serves as a general introduction to food science and technology, based on the academic courses presented by the authors as well as their personal research experiences. The authors' main focus is on the biological and physical-chemical stabilization of food, and the quality assessment control methods and normative aspects of the subsequent processes. Presented across three parts, the authors offer a detailed account of the scientific basis and technological knowledge needed to understand agro-food transformation. From biological analyses and process engineering, through to the development of food products and biochemical and microbiological changes, the different parts cover all aspects of the control of food quality.
Volume 1 presents successively an introduction followed by 10 chapters and a conclusion: A logistic approach an overview of operations research The basics of graph theory calculating optimal routes Dynamic programming planning and scheduling with PERT and MPM the waves of calculations in a network spanning trees and touring linear programming modeling of road traffic
The aim of this book is the study of signals and deterministic systems, linear, time-invariant, finite dimensions and causal. A set of useful tools is selected for the automatic and signal processing and methods of representation of dynamic linear systems are exposed, and analysis of their behavior. Finally we discuss the estimation, identification and synthesis of control laws for the purpose of stabilization and regulation. The study of signal characteristics and properties systems and knowledge of mathematical tools and treatment methods and analysis, are lately more and more importance and continue to evolve. The reason is that the current state of technology, particularly electronics and computing, enables the production of very advanced processing systems, effective and less expensive despite the complexity.