The legitimacy or illegitimacy of information exchanges between competitors remains a topical debate with regard to EU competition law and policy. This book reexamines the issue in the retail financial services sector, focusing on the peculiar problems that it poses for EU market integration, consumer policy and protection and the intersection with fundamental rights. It analyzes and reflects on the relevant case law and guidelines offered by the corresponding European authorities, providing a critique of the current approach and advancing the proposition that information markets themselves need attention, in addition to the markets that they serve. The book also advances new perspectives on cases in which consumers' personal information is involved in the exchange, recognizing the inevitable interaction between EU competition law, the interests and protection of consumers and personal data protection. It suggests that the status quo under competition law is unsatisfactorily short sighted and that the EU should take a holistic approach (including information markets) to the analysis of competition law, reflecting consumer protection and fundamental rights aspects in the assessment.
Des écrits récents ont présenté le géographe libertaire Elisée Reclus (1830-1905) comme un antisémite. Comment peut-on affirmer un tel propos compte tenu de la nature du personnage et de ses convictions politiques ? Comment Reclus perçoit-il géographiquement le statut territorial particulier qui caractérise les Juifs ? Quelles sont les implications politiques de sa vision dans le contexte de la pensée socialiste et anarchiste d'alors ?
International scholarship is increasingly aware that the `geographical tradition' is a contentious and contested field: while critical reflections on the imperial past of the discipline are still ongoing, new tendencies including de-colonial studies and geographies of internationalism are focusing on the progressive aspects of plural geographical traditions. This volume contains selected papers presented at two Symposia of the Commission on the History of Geography of the International Geographical Union within the 25th International Congress of History of Science and Technology which took place in Rio de Janeiro in July 2017.The papers address processes of `decolonising' and `internationalising' science in the 19th and 20th century, with a special emphasis on geography. Internationalization, circulation and dissemination of geographical concepts and ideas are in the focus. The volume includes case studies on Latin America, tropical regions as well as Europe and Japan. There is also an emphasis on the history of international congresses and organizations and on the international circulation of knowledge.