Two blank sheets of writing paper sealed in an envelope with a postmark from Baskerville are brought to Holmes by London publisher Garrison Bolt. The addressee is Newman Musgrave. Together they must investigate why this letter, which contains a hidden secret, was sent with such urgency to a man, who unbeknown to the sender has been dead for number of years. Or is it possible that this note was never intended for the deceased man, but rather deliberately intended to fall into Holmes's hands?
This book of ten original essays provides a showcase of currently diverse theoretical agendas in the field of international relations. Contributors address the theoretical analysis that their perspective brings to the issue of change in global politics. Written for readers with a general interest in and knowledge of world affairs, New Thinking in International Relations Theory can also be assigned in international relations theory courses.The volume begins with an essay on the classical tradition at the end of the Cold War. Essays explore work outside the mainstream, such as Jean Bethke Elshtain on feminist theory and James Der Derian on postmodern theory as well as those developing theoretical advances within traditional realms from James DeNardo's formal modeling to the more descriptive analyses of Miles Kahler and Steve Weber. Other essays include Matthew Evangelista on domestics structure, Daniel Deudney on naturalist and geopolitical theory, and Joseph Grieco on international structuralist theory.
The increased emphasis on food safety during the past two decades has decreased the emphasis on the loss of food through spoilage, particularly in developed co- tries where food is more abundant. In these countries spoilage is a commercial issue that affects the pro?t or loss of producers and manufacturers. In lesser developed countries spoilage continues to be a major concern. The amount of food lost to spoilage is not known. As will be evident in this text, stability and the type of spoilage are in?uenced by the inherent properties of the food and many other factors. During the Second World War a major effort was given to developing the te- nologies needed to ship foods to different regions of the world without spoilage. The food was essential to the military and to populations in countries that could not provide for themselves. Since then, progress has been made in improved product formulations, processing, packaging, and distribution systems. New products have continued to evolve, but for many new perishable foods product stability continues to be a limiting factor. Many new products have failed to reach the marketplace because of spoilage issues.
Foodborne illnesses continue to be a major public health concern. All members of a particular bacterial genera (e.g., Salmonella, Campylobacter) or species (e.g., Listeria monocytogenes, Cronobacter sakazakii) are often treated by public health and regulatory agencies as being equally pathogenic; however, this is not necessarily true and is an overly conservative approach to ensuring the safety of foods. Even within species, virulence factors vary to the point that some isolates may be highly virulent, whereas others may rarely, if ever, cause disease in humans. Hence, many food safety scientists have concluded that a more appropriate characterization of bacterial isolates for public health purposes could be by virotyping, i.e., typing food-associated bacteria on the basis of their virulence factors. The book is divided into two sections. Section I, "Foodborne Pathogens and Virulence Factors," hones in on specific virulence factors of foodborne pathogens and the role they play in regulatory requirements, recalls, and foodborne illness. The oft-held paradigm that all pathogenic strains are equally virulent is untrue. Thus, we will examine variability in virulence between strains such as Listeria, Salmonella, Campylobacter, Cronobacter, etc. This section also examines known factors capable of inducing greater virulence in foodborne pathogens. Section II, "Foodborne Pathogens, Host Susceptibility, and Infectious Dose" , covers the ability of a pathogen to invade a human host based on numerous extraneous factors relative to the host and the environment. Some of these factors include host age, immune status, genetic makeup, infectious dose, food composition and probiotics. Readers of this book will come away with a better understanding of foodborne bacterial pathogen virulence factors and pathogenicity, and host factors that predict the severity of disease in humans.
Over the last decade, high-sensitivity calorimetry has developed from a specialist method used mainly by dedicated experts to a major, commercially available tool in the arsenal directed at understanding molecular interactions and stability. Calorimeters have now become commonplace in bioscience laboratories. As a result, the number of those proficient in experimentation in this field has risen dramatically, as has the range of experiments to which these methods have been applied. Applications extend from studies in small molecule and solvent biophysics, through drug screening to whole cell assays. The technology has developed to include higher levels of sensitivity (and hence smaller sample size requirements) and a drive towards high-throughput technology, creating a very large user base in both academia and the pharmaceutical industry. This book is a fully revised and updated edition of the successful Biocalorimetry: Applications of Calorimetry in the Biological Sciences, published in 1998. Since then, there have been many advances in the instrumentation as well as in its applications and methodology. There are general chapters highlighting the usage of the isothermal titration calorimeter and the differential scanning calorimeter, more advanced chapters on specific applications and tutorials that cover the idiosyncrasies of experimental methods and data analysis. The book draws these together to create the definitive biological calorimetric text book. This book both explains the background to the method and describes novel, high-impact applications. It features works of interest to the experienced calorimetrist and the enthusiastic dilettante. The book should be of interest to all working in the field of biocalorimetry, from graduate students to researchers in academia and in industry.
Low water activity (aw) and dried foods such as dried dairy and meat products, grain-based and dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, peanut and nut pastes, as well as flours and meals have increasingly been associated with product recalls and foodborne outbreaks due to contamination by pathogens such as Salmonella spp. and enterohemorrhagic E. coli. In particular, recent foodborne outbreaks and product recalls related to Salmonella-contaminated spices have raised the level of public health concern for spices as agents of foodborne illnesses. Presently, most spices are grown outside the U.S., mainly in 8 countries: India, Indonesia, China, Brazil, Peru, Madagascar, Mexico and Vietnam. Many of these countries are under-developed and spices are harvested and stored with little heed to sanitation. The FDA has regulatory oversight of spices in the United States; however, the agency's control is largely limited to enforcing regulatory compliance through sampling and testing only after imported foodstuffs have crossed the U.S. border. Unfortunately, statistical sampling plans are inefficient tools for ensuring total food safety. As a result, the development and use of decontamination treatments is key. This book provides an understanding of the microbial challenges to the safety of low aw foods, and a historic backdrop to the paradigm shift now highlighting low aw foods as vehicles for foodborne pathogens. Up-to-date facts and figures of foodborne illness outbreaks and product recalls are included. Special attention is given to the uncanny ability of Salmonella to persist under dry conditions in food processing plants and foods. A section is dedicated specifically to processing plant investigations, providing practical approaches to determining sources of persistent bacterial strains in the industrial food processing environment. Readers are guided through dry cleaning, wet cleaning and alternatives to processing plant hygiene and sanitation. Separate chapters are devoted to low aw food commodities of interest including spices, dried dairy-based products, low aw meat products, dried ready-to-eat cereal products, powdered infant formula, nuts and nut pastes, flours and meals, chocolate and confectionary, dried teas and herbs, and pet foods. The book provides regulatory testing guidelines and recommendations as well as guidance through methodological and sampling challenges to testing spices and low aw foods for the presence of foodborne pathogens. Chapters also address decontamination processes for low aw foods, including heat, steam, irradiation, microwave, and alternative energy-based treatments.
The Third Edition of Michael Doyle's classic Color Drawing remains the ultimate up-to-date resource for professionals and students who need to develop and communicate design ideas with clear, attractive, impressive color drawings.
Update with over 100 pages, this Third Edition contains an entirely new section focused on state-of-the-art digital techniques to greatly enhance the sophistication of presentation drawings, and offers new and innovative ideas for the reproduction and distribution of finished drawings. Color Drawing, Third Edition Features:
* A complete body of illustrated instructions demonstrating drawing development from initial concept through final presentation
* Finely honed explanations of each technique and process
* Faster and easier ways to create design drawings
* Over 100 new pages demonstrating methods for combining hand-drawn and computer-generated drawing techniques
Step-by-step, easy-to-follow images will lead you through digital techniques to quickly and easily enhance your presentation drawings.
Presents the most innovative results in carbene chemistry, setting the foundation for new discoveries and applications The discovery of stable carbenes has reinvigorated carbene chemistry research, with investigators seeking to develop carbenes into new useful catalysts and ligands. Presenting the most innovative and promising areas of carbene research over the past decade, this book explores newly discovered structural, catalytic, and organometallic aspects of carbene chemistry, with an emphasis on new and emerging synthetic applications. Contemporary Carbene Chemistry features contributions from an international team of pioneering carbene chemistry researchers. Collectively, these authors have highlighted the most interesting and promising areas of investigation in the field. The book is divided into two parts: Part 1, Properties and Reactions of Carbenes, explores new findings on carbene stability, acid-base behavior, and catalysis. Carbenic structure and reactivity are examined in chapters dedicated to stable carbenes, carbodicarbenes, carbenes as guests in supramolecular hosts, tunneling in carbene and oxacarbene reactions, and ultrafast kinetics of carbenes and their excited state precursors. Theoretical concerns are addressed in chapters on computational methods and dynamics applied to carbene reactions. Part 2, Metal Carbenes, is dedicated to the synthetic dimensions of carbenes, particularly the reactions and catalytic properties of metal carbenes. The authors discuss lithium, rhodium, ruthenium, chromium, molybdenum, tungsten, cobalt, and gold. All the chapters conclude with a summary of the current situation, new challenges on the horizon, and promising new research directions. A list of key reviews and suggestions for further reading also accompanies every chapter. Each volume of the Wiley Series on Reactive Intermediates in Chemistry and Biology focuses on a specific reactive intermediate, offering a broad range of perspectives from leading experts that sets the stage for new applications and further discoveries.
Foodborne illnesses caused by zoonotic pathogens associated with wildlife hosts are an emerging microbial food safety concern. Transmission of foodborne pathogens can occur through ingestion, or improper handling, of contaminated game meat. Wild and feral animals have also been investigated as potential sources of Campylobacter, Escherichia coli O157:H7 and other enteric pathogens following foodborne disease outbreaks linked to fresh fruits and vegetables (e.g., baby spinach in California, shelled-peas in Alaska, strawberries in Oregon). This book explores the range of bacterial, parasitic, and viral pathogens that have been described in wildlife populations in the United States, Europe and other parts of the world. It also addresses important challenges and solutions to balance agriculture, conservation, and public health goals. The book provides unique information on approaches in risk communication, co-management, and One Health in a wildlife-food safety context. The first five chapters review research on the detection, epidemiology and ecology of foodborne pathogens in wildlife populations including the influence of wildlife-livestock-human interactions. The second half of the book addresses current guidelines to mitigate microbial food safety risks from wildlife hosts and new regulations proposed by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration in the Food Safety Modernization Act Produce Safety Rule. Chapters are written by an array of internationally recognized authors, and will be of interest to agriculture safety experts, ecologists, environmental health specialists, food safety professionals, microbiologists, public health practitioners, veterinarians, wildlife biologists, and others in academia, government, industry, and students in these disciplines.