Relative entropy has played a significant role in various fields of mathematics and physics as the quantum version of the Kullback-Leibler divergence in classical theory. Many variations of relative entropy have been introduced so far with applications to quantum information and related subjects. Typical examples are three different classes, called the standard, the maximal, and the measured f-divergences, all of which are defined in terms of (operator) convex functions f on (0,8) and have respective mathematical and information theoretical backgrounds. The a-Rényi relative entropy and its new version called the sandwiched a-Rényi relative entropy have also been useful in recent developments of quantum information.
In the first half of this monograph, the different types of quantum f-divergences and the Rényi-type divergences mentioned above in the general von Neumann algebra setting are presented for study. While quantum information has been developing mostly in the finite-dimensional setting, it is widely believed that von Neumann algebras provide the most suitable framework in studying quantum information and related subjects. Thus, the advance of quantum divergences in von Neumann algebras will be beneficial for further development of quantum information.
Quantum divergences are functions of two states (or more generally, two positive linear functionals) on a quantum system and measure the difference between the two states. They are often utilized to address such problems as state discrimination, error correction, and reversibility of quantum operations. In the second half of the monograph, the reversibility/sufficiency theory for quantum operations (quantum channels) between von Neumann algebras via quantum f-divergences is explained, thus extending and strengthening Petz' previous work.
For the convenience of the reader, an appendix including concise accounts of von Neumann algebras is provided.
The package of Gromov's pseudo-holomorphic curves is a major tool in global symplectic geometry and its applications, including mirror symmetry and Hamiltonian dynamics. The Kuranishi structure was introduced by two of the authors of the present volume in the mid-1990s to apply this machinery on general symplectic manifolds without assuming any specific restrictions. It was further amplified by this book's authors in their monograph Lagrangian Intersection Floer Theory and in many other publications of theirs and others. Answering popular demand, the authors now present the current book, in which they provide a detailed, self-contained explanation of the theory of Kuranishi structures.
Part I discusses the theory on a single space equipped with Kuranishi structure, called a K-space, and its relevant basic package. First, the definition of a K-space and maps to the standard manifold are provided. Definitions are given for fiber products, differential forms, partitions of unity, and the notion of CF-perturbations on the K-space. Then, using CF-perturbations, the authors define the integration on K-space and the push-forward of differential forms, and generalize Stokes' formula and Fubini's theorem in this framework. Also, "virtual fundamental class" is defined, and its cobordism invariance is proved.
Part II discusses the (compatible) system of K-spaces and the process of going from "geometry" to "homological algebra". Thorough explanations of the extension of given perturbations on the boundary to the interior are presented. Also explained is the process of taking the "homotopy limit" needed to handle a system of infinitely many moduli spaces. Having in mind the future application of these chain level constructions beyond those already known, an axiomatic approach is taken by listing the properties of the system of the relevant moduli spaces and then a self-contained account of the construction of the associated algebraic structures is given. This axiomatic approach makes the exposition contained here independent of previously published construction of relevant structures.
This monograph focuses on the mathematical and numerical analysis of simplicial partitions and the finite element method. This active area of research has become an essential part of physics and engineering, for example in the study of problems involving heat conduction, linear elasticity, semiconductors, Maxwell's equations, Einstein's equations and magnetic and gravitational fields.
These problems require the simulation of various phenomena and physical fields over complicated structures in three (and higher) dimensions. Since not all structures can be decomposed into simpler objects like d-dimensional rectangular blocks, simplicial partitions are important. In this book an emphasis is placed on angle conditions guaranteeing the convergence of the finite element method for elliptic PDEs with given boundary conditions.
It is aimed at a general mathematical audience who is assumed to be familiar with only a few basic results from linear algebra, geometry, and mathematical and numerical analysis.
Environmental chemistry is a fast developing science aimed at deciphering fundamental mechanisms ruling the behaviour of pollutants in ecosystems. Applying this knowledge to current environmental issues leads to the remediation of environmental media, and to new, low energy, low emission, sustainable processes. Chapters review analysis and remediation of pollutants such as greenhouse gases, chiral pharmaceuticals, dyes, chlorinated organics, arsenic, toxic metals and pathogen in air, water, plant and soil. Several highlights include the overlooked impact of air pollutants from buildings for health risk, innovative remediation techniques such as bioreactors for gas treatment, electrochemical cleaning of pharmaceuticals, sequestration on Fe-Mn nodules, phytoremediation and photocatalytical inactivation of microbial pathogens. This book will be a valuable source of information for engineers and students developing novel applied techniques to monitor and clean pollutants in air, wastewater, soils and sediments.
This book offers a wide-ranging and up-to-date overview of the basic science underlying PET and
its preclinical and clinical applications in modern medicine. In addition, it provides the reader with a sound understanding of the scientific principles and use of PET in routine practice and biomedical imaging research. The opening sections address the fundamental physics, radiation safety, CT scanning dosimetry, and dosimetry of PET radiotracers, chemistry and regulation of PET radiopharmaceuticals, with information on labeling strategies, tracer quality control, and regulation of radiopharmaceutical production in Europe and the United States. PET physics and instrumentation are then discussed, covering the basic principles of PET and PET scanning systems, hybrid PET/CT and PET/MR imaging, system calibration, acceptance testing, and quality control. Subsequent sections focus on image reconstruction, processing, and quantitation in PET and hybrid PET and on imaging artifacts and correction techniques, with particular attention to partial volume correction and motion artifacts. The book closes by examining clinical applications of PET and hybrid PET and their physiological and/or molecular basis in conjunction with technical foundations in the disciplines of oncology, cardiology and neurology, PET in pediatric malignancy and its role in radiotherapy treatment planning. Basic Science of PET Imaging will meet the needs of nuclear medicine practitioners, other radiology specialists, and trainees in these fields.
This book provides a concise introduction to convex duality in financial mathematics. Convex duality plays an essential role in dealing with financial problems and involves maximizing concave utility functions and minimizing convex risk measures. Recently, convex and generalized convex dualities have shown to be crucial in the process of the dynamic hedging of contingent claims. Common underlying principles and connections between different perspectives are developed; results are illustrated through graphs and explained heuristically. This book can be used as a reference and is aimed toward graduate students, researchers and practitioners in mathematics, finance, economics, and optimization. Topics include: Markowitz portfolio theory, growth portfolio theory, fundamental theorem of asset pricing emphasizing the duality between utility optimization and pricing by martingale measures, risk measures and its dual representation, hedging and super-hedging and its relationship with linear programming duality and the duality relationship in dynamic hedging of contingent claims
Das Buch zeigt die Grundlagen der Internen Revision, mit Blick auf die Compliance. Der Rechtsteil behandelt wesentliche Rechtsfragen beider Unternehmensfunktionen. Der operative Teil orientiert sich an den typischen Revisionsaufgaben und Revisionsprozessen im privatwirtschaftlichen und im ffentlichen Kontext mit Spiegelung zu den Aufgaben der Compliance. Der Fokus liegt auf einer pragmatisch-praxistauglichen Darstellung, Erläuterung und Umsetzung der Berufsgrundlagen und Best Practices der Internen Revision.
Das Werk bietet eine fundierte Übersicht über die Grundlagen und die Ursprünge der Compliance- und Revisionsarbeit und geht dabei auf erfrischende Weise über den sonst üblichen rein rechtlichen Rahmen hinaus. Der Bezug auf aktuelle Themen, verbunden mit einer direkten und offenen Auseinandersetzung mit Fehlern und Schwachstellen im System der Unternehmenscompliance, machen das Buch zu einer sehr lesenswerten Lektüre.Jrg Nierhaus, LL.M., Chief Compliance Officer, Essen
Dieses Buch zeigt, welche Rolle Daten für Kommunikation und Marketing spielen und wie sie als wichtige Quelle für das Storytelling genutzt werden knnen. Denn Daten beflügeln als Rohstoff des digitalen Zeitalters die Unternehmensstrategie. Sie ermglichen sofern sauber gesammelt, interpretiert und aufbereitet neue und mitunter überraschende Einblicke in Zusammenhänge und bieten die Chance, daraus spannende Geschichten zu entwickeln. Geschichten, die auch im Hinblick auf Unternehmensziele Relevanz schaffen, Dialoge entfachen und die Kommunikation wirksam machen. Der Autor erklärt auf leicht verständliche Art und Weise, wie sich datenbasierte Kommunikationsstrategien in packende Storys verwandeln lassen. Zudem liefert er nützliche Tools und zeigt auf, warum Daten lügen knnen, wie wichtig ihre optische Aufbereitung ist, wo ihr Einsatz an ethische Grenzen stßt und warum Datenschutz auch eine unternehmerische Chance ist. Anhand von praktischen Beispielen bietet das Buch Marketing- und Kommunikationsexperten aber auch interessierten Managern aus anderen Disziplinen zahlreiche Inspirationen und neue Perspektiven.
In this book, the author deals with the mathematical modelling, nonlinear control and performance evaluation of a conceptualanti-aircraft gun based mobile air defence system engaging an attacking three-dimensional aerial target.
This book is of interest to academic faculty, graduate students and industry professionals working inthe fields of mathematical modelling and control, ground vehicles, mobile air defence systems and other related topics.
Dieses Buch ist eine strukturierte Einführung in das europaweit einheitliche Zugbeeinflussungssystem ETCS (European Train Control System). Der Autor führt in die Motivation und Rechtsgrundlagen des ETCS ein. Der Aufbau der unterschiedlichen Ausrüstungsstufen wird dargestellt und die einzelnen Komponenten der Fahrzeug- und Streckeneinrichtung beschrieben. Die umfassende Darstellung der technischen Grundprinzipien des ETCS umfasst sowohl die Sicherungsfunktionen als auch ihre Umsetzung in den unterschiedlichen Betriebsarten. Die Kenntnis dieser technischen Zusammenhänge schafft ein Verständnis, wie ETCS zukünftig einen Beitrag für einen sicheren, wirtschaftlichen und leistungsfähigen Bahnbetrieb leisten kann.
This book series focuses on current progress in the broad field of medical microbiology, and covers both basic and applied topics related to the study of microbes, their interactions with human and animals, and emerging issues relevant for public health. Original research and review articles present and discuss multidisciplinary findings and developments on various aspects of microbiology, infectious diseases, and their diagnosis, treatment and prevention.
The book gathers high-quality research papers presented at the International Conference on Advanced Computing and Intelligent Engineering (ICACIE 2017). It includes technical sections describing progress in the fields of advanced computing and intelligent engineering, and is primarily intended for postgraduate students and researchers working in Computer Science and Engineering. However, researchers working in Electronics will also find the book useful, as it addresses hardware technologies and next-gen communication technologies.
Verkehrsinfrastrukturen sind ein Rückgrat unserer Gesellschaft. IT-Systeme sind für die effektive Steuerung Kritischer Verkehrsinfrastrukturen elementar und sind gegen unberechtigte Zugriffe Dritter zu schützen. Dieses essential erläutert, was unter Kritischen Verkehrsinfrastrukturen zu verstehen ist und wie diese umfassend geschützt werden. Mit dem Gestaltungsparadigma der tiefgestaffelten Verteidigung werden konkrete Ansätze für den wirksamen Schutz Kritischer Verkehrsinfrastrukturen als Kombination technischer und organisatorischer Maßnahmen sowie Maßnahmen des physischen Zugriffssschutzes aufgezeigt.
This book presents the proceedings of the 2020 International Conference on Intelligent Systems Applications in Multi-modal Information Analytics, held in Changzhou, China, on June 18-19, 2020. It provides comprehensive coverage of the latest advances and trends in information technology, science and engineering. It addresses a number of broad themes, including data mining, multi-modal informatics, agent-based and multi-agent systems for health and education informatics, which inspire the development of intelligent information technologies. The contributions cover a wide range of topics such as AI applications and innovations in health and education informatics; data and knowledge management; multi-modal application management; and web/social media mining for multi-modal informatics. Outlining promising future research directions, the book is a valuable resource for students, researchers and professionals, and a useful reference guide for newcomers to the field.
Fungi range from being microscopic, single-celled yeasts to multicellular and heterotrophic in nature. Fungal communities have been found in vast ranges of environmental conditions. They can be associated with plants epiphytically, endophytically, or rhizospherically. Extreme environments represent unique ecosystems that harbor novel biodiversity of fungal communities.
Interest in the exploration of fungal diversity has been spurred by the fact that fungi perform numerous functions integral in sustaining the biosphere, ranging from nutrient cycling to environmental detoxification, which involves processes like augmentation, supplementation, and recycling of plant nutrients - a particularly important process in sustainable agriculture. Fungal communities from natural and extreme habitats help promote plant growth, enhance crop yield, and enhance soil fertility via direct or indirect plant growth promoting (PGP) mechanisms of solubilization of phosphorus, potassium, and zinc, production of ammonia, hydrogen cyanides, phytohormones, Fe-chelating compounds, extracellular hydrolytic enzymes, and bioactive secondary metabolites. These PGP fungi could be used as biofertilizers, bioinoculants, and biocontrol agents in place of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in eco-friendly manners for sustainable agriculture and environments.
Along with agricultural applications, medically important fungi play a significant role for human health. Fungal communities are useful for sustainable environments as they are used for bioremediation which is the use of microorganisms' metabolism to degrade waste contaminants (sewage, domestic, and industrial effluents) into non-toxic or less toxic materials by natural biological processes. Fungi could be used as mycoremediation for the future of environmental sustainability. Fungi and fungal products have the biochemical and ecological capability to degrade environmental organic chemicals and to decrease the risk associated with metals, semi-metals, and noble metals either by chemical modification or by manipulating chemical bioavailability.
The two volumes of Recent Trends in Mycological Research aim to provide an understanding of fungal communities from diverse environmental habitats and their potential applications in agriculture, medical, environments and industry. The books are useful to scientists, researchers, and students involved in microbiology, biotechnology, agriculture, molecular biology, environmental biology and related subjects.
This book provides a holistic picture of how Chinese turnaround schools have been remarkably improved over the years and to arouse further discussion in this regard. It contributes to the understanding of school improvement from a Chinese cultural perspective, solidifies the knowledge basis of school change theories, and expands the understanding of educational administration and policies in China.
This open access book has been written by ten Belgian health care professionals, nurses, university professors and doctors specializing in palliative care and ethicists who, together, raise questions concerning the practice of euthanasia. They share their experiences and reflections born out of their confrontation with requests for euthanasia and end-of-life support in a country where euthanasia has been decriminalized since 2002 and is now becoming a trivial topic.Far from evoking any militancy, these stories of life and death present the other side of a reality needs to be evaluated more rigorously.Featuring multidisciplinary perspectives, this though-provoking and original book is intended not only for caregivers but also for anyone who questions the meaning of death and suffering, as well as the impact of a law passed in 2002. Presenting real-world cases and experiences, it highlights the complexity of situations and the consequences of the euthanasia law.This book appeals to palliative care providers, hematologists, oncologists, psychiatrists, nurses and health professionals as well as researchers, academics, policy-makers, and social scientists working in health care. It is also a unique resource for those in countries where the decriminalization of euthanasia is being considered. Sometimes shocking, it focuses on facts and lived experiences to challenge readers and offer insights into euthanasia in Belgium.
This book reports on innovative research and developments in automation. Spanning a wide range of disciplines, including communication engineering, power engineering, control engineering, instrumentation, signal processing and cybersecurity, it focuses on methods and findings aimed at improving the control and monitoring of industrial and manufacturing processes as well as safety. Based on the International Russian Automation Conference, held on September 6-12, 2020, in Sochi, Russia, the book provides academics and professionals with a timely overview of and extensive information on the state of the art in the field of automation and control systems, and fosters new ideas and collaborations between groups in different countries.
This visually stunning and data rich text catalogs the design of 32 concert halls by world-renowned acoustician Yasuhisa Toyota and his team at Nagata Acoustics, the firm behind the celebrated Walt Disney Concert Hall, the Hamburg Elbphilharmonie, and numerous others. Alongside architectural drawings and photographs, commentary on the design process and challenges of each hall provides insight for the dedicated listener to appreciate a wide range of internationally beloved concert venues. Summarized acoustical and architectural data for each of the halls will provide valuable reference information to architects and acousticians alike. Following the project anthology is an overview of the history, development, and acoustical features of vineyard- and surround-style concert halls. A broader discussion of design philosophy reveals the methods by which Toyota has guided architects to create world renowned halls. These technical and general discussions give architects the foundation to design for the performing arts, and provide audiences a new insight and perspective to consider the next time they attend a concert.
This book brings together authors from United States, South Africa, United Kingdom, China, Canada and Australia to provide insights and case studies from across a range of contexts to explore the interplay between the notions of rurality, innovation and education. The book reveals a hopeful and resilient approach to innovative rural education and scholarship collectively and provides important evidence to speak against an often deficit view of rural education. Three patterns are revealed, namely: the importance of place-attentive strategies, the importance of joined up alliances to maximise resources and networks and finally, the need to utilize alternative methodologies and frameworks that have a starting point of difference rather than deficit for any rural initiative or approach. By drawing from international examples and responding in innovative ways to rural education challenges, this book provides an opportunity to share international insights into innovations, interventions and partnerships that promote and support rural education in its broadest sense.
Dieses Buch vermittelt die Grundlagen der Diagnostik von Gleichgewichtsstrungen unter besonderer Berücksichtigung der thermischen Videonystagmographie. Es werden zunächst die anatomischen und physiologischen Grundlagen des Vestibularsystems sowie die Anamnese und klinischen Untersuchungen und anschließend die apparativen diagnostischen Mglichkeiten zusammengefasst. Die Darstellung des Vorgehens bei der Diagnostik der einzelnen Krankheitsbilder ist sehr praxisnah gehalten. Das Buch beseitigt viele Unsicherheiten in der Diagnose der zugrundeliegenden Ursachen von Gleichgewichtsstrungen, die es nach wie vor gibt. Für HNO-Ärzte, Hausärzte und Neurologen in Klinik und Praxis.
Dieses Buch enthält eine Zusammenstellung von Artikeln zu aktuellen Fragen der Wissenschaften vom Menschen. Es spannt einen Bogen von der Philosophie und Psychologie bis hin zur Biologie, Hirnforschung und Medizin. Der Autor forscht und lehrt nicht nur in diesen Gebieten, sondern schreibt darüber seit über 15 Jahren für ein breites Publikum. Eine Auswahl der 33 wichtigsten Beiträge aus seinem erfolgreichen Blog MENSCHEN-BILDER (Spektrum der Wissenschaft) sind hier in überarbeiteter Form neu zusammengestellt und mit Einführungen und Ausblicken versehen. In sechs Abschnitten behandelt er Grundfragen von Neurophilosophie und -Theologie, Neuroethik, psychischen Strungen, Lebensphilosophie und sexueller Orientierung. Die Bedeutung der wissenschaftlichen Funde für Mensch und Gesellschaft steht dabei an zentraler Stelle.Für den Autor ergänzen sich die drei Sichtweisen Gehirn, Psyche und Gesellschaft, sodass der Mensch und sein Handeln nicht bloß als die Summe seiner neuronalen Schaltkreise verstanden werden kann. Das Buch schlägt damit auch eine Brücke zwischen Geistes-, Sozial- und Naturwissenschaften, die einander befruchten. Anhand von philosophischen Problemen und Alltagserfahrung wird deutlich, wie diese Perspektiven zusammengehren.
This contributed volume explores flexible, adaptable, and sustainable solutions to the shockingly high costs of birth across the globe. It presents innovative and collaborative maternity care practices and policies that are intersectional, human rights-based, transdisciplinary, science-driven, and community-based. Each chapter describes participatory and midwifery-oriented care that helps improve maternal and newborn outcomes within minoritized populations. The featured case studies respond to resource constraints and inequities of access by transforming relations between providers and families or by creating more egalitarian relations among diverse providers such as midwives, obstetricians, and nurses that minimize inefficient hierarchies within maternity care. The authors build on a growing awareness that quality and respectful midwifery care has lower costs and improved outcomes for child bearers, newborns, and providers. Topics include: Sustainable collaborations including transfers of care among midwives and obstetricians in India, The Netherlands, Germany, United Kingdom, and DenmarkMidwifery-oriented, femifocal, indigenous, and inclusive models of care that counter obstetric violence and gender stereotypes in Mexico, Chile, Guatemala, Argentina, and India Doula care and midwifery care for women of color, previously incarcerated women, indigenous women, and other minoritized groups in the global north and southPractices and metrics for improving quality of newborn and maternal care as well as maternal and newborn outcomes in disruptive times and disaster settings Sustainable Birth in Disruptive Times is an essential and timely resource for providers, policy makers, students, and activists with interests in maternity care, midwifery, medical anthropology, maternal health, newborn health, obstetrics, childbirth, medicine, and global health in disruptive times.
This book presents novel and original metaheuristics developed to solve the cost-balanced traveling salesman problem. This problem was taken into account for the Metaheuristics Competition proposed in MESS 2018, Metaheuristics Summer School, and the top 4 methodologies ranked are included in the book, together with a brief introduction to the traveling salesman problem and all its variants.
The book is aimed particularly at all researchers in metaheuristics and combinatorial optimization areas.
Key uses are metaheuristics; complex problem solving; combinatorial optimization; traveling salesman problem.